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Lecture #37: Memory. Last lecture: Transmission line equations Reflections and termination High frequency measurements This lecture: Static Ram Dynamic Ram. Memory types.

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Lecture #37: Memory

  • Last lecture:
    • Transmission line equations
    • Reflections and termination
    • High frequency measurements
  • This lecture:
    • Static Ram
    • Dynamic Ram

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

memory types
Memory types
  • In addition to registers, there is usually a need in digital logic devices for a denser (and therefore cheaper) means of storing information in larger amounts.
  • The main memory types are known as RAM (Random Access Memory) as contrasted with long shift registers from which information can only be extracted or added in sequence.

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

slide3
RAM
  • In a RAM, an address is provided to a block of logic, along with an address strobe and a write signal line.
  • The memory block then either reads a block of bits and puts it onto a bus, or writes the data from the bus into the indicated area of memory.

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

types of memory
Types of memory
  • SRAM (Static RAM) is a memory which is essentially an array of flip flops. It can be very fast, and is integrated with logic.
  • DRAM (Dynamic RAM) is a dense memory which uses a single capacitor controlled by a switch to store a bit. Dram must be rewritten after a write, and must be refreshed periodically.

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

other types of memory
Other types of memory
  • Read only memory (ROM) is a memory whose content is fixed at manufacture, and thus can only be read.
  • Content addressable memory (CRAM) is memory which can be addressed, at least in part by its contents, rather than an address.
  • E2 memory (electrically erasable) is memory which can be read and written, but whose content is nonvolatile. Writing is often much slower than reading

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

ram logical organization
RAM logical organization

D

Note that the number row decoder lines and column lines goes like the square root of the memory size

Column Decoder

Read/Write

Q

Address lines

Memory array

Row Decoder

Address strobe

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

slide7
SRAM
  • Cache uses SRAM: Static Random Access Memory
    • No refresh
    • Size 6 transistors/bit
    • Fast, can be optimized for speed or area reduction
    • Compatible with dense logic, so can be integrated with microprocessors with no extra masks

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

static ram sram
Static RAM (SRAM)
  • Six transistors in cross connected fashion
    • Provides regular AND inverted outputs
    • Implemented in CMOS process

Single Port 6-T SRAM Cell

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

sram cell
SRAM cell
  • Each cell of an SRAM is a pair of cross connected small inverters
  • As long as power is supplied, the latch will hold the value.
  • When the row line is held high, the outputs are driven with the contents of the memory.
  • The latch is written by using a more powerful driver on the column lines to overcome the smaller transistors in the latch which forces the desired state.

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

slide10
DRAM
  • Main Memory is DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory
    • 1 transistor
    • Dynamic since needs to be refreshed periodically (8 ms, 1% time)
    • Addresses divided into 2 halves (Memory as a 2D matrix):
      • RAS or Row Access Strobe
      • CAS or Column Access Strobe

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

dynamic ram
Dynamic RAM
  • SRAM cells exhibit high speed/poor density
  • DRAM: simple transistor/capacitor pairs in high density form

Word Line

C

Bit Line

...

Sense Amp

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

basic dram cell
Basic DRAM Cell
  • Planar Cell
    • Polysilicon-Diffusion Capacitance, Diffused Bitlines
  • Problem: Uses a lot of area (< 1Mb)
  • You can’t just ride the process curve to shrink C (discussed later)

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

dram operations

Word Line

C

...

Bit Line

Sense Amp

DRAM Operations
  • Write
    • Charge bitline HIGH or LOW and set wordline HIGH
  • Read
    • Bit line is precharged to a voltage halfway between HIGH and LOW, and then the word line is set HIGH.
    • Depending on the charge in the cap, the precharged bitline is pulled slightly higheror lower.
    • Sense Amp Detects change
  • The signal is decreased by the ratio of the storage capacitance to the bitline capacitance
    • Increase density => increase parasiticcapacitance
    • As geometries shrink, still need large bit capacitance

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

advanced dram cells
Advanced DRAM Cells
  • Stacked cell (Expand UP)

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

advanced dram cells1
Advanced DRAM Cells
  • Trench Cell (Expand DOWN)

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

dram logical organization 4 mbit
DRAM logical organization (4 Mbit)

D

  • Square root of bits per RAS/CAS

Column Decoder

Sense

Amps & I/O

1

1

Q

Memory

Array

A0…A1

0

Row Decoder

(2,048 x 2,048)

Storage

W

ord Line

Cell

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

dram sense amp
DRAM sense amp

+V

Both precharged to ½ V

Bit line

Data out

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

dram sense amplifier
DRAM sense amplifier
  • The reason that DRAM is slow, is that a very small charge is captured on the capacitor, and the small voltage change on the line must be sensed.

V

Charge dumped to bit line

Sense amp decides 0 or 1

Precharge→

time

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

dram sram tradeoffs
DRAM/SRAM tradeoffs
  • By it’s nature, DRAM isn’t built for speed
    • Response time dependent on capacitive circuit properties which get worse as density increases
  • DRAM process isn’t easy to integrate into CMOS process
    • DRAM is off chip
    • Connectors, wires, etc introduce slowness
    • IRAM efforts looking to integrating the two
  • Memory Architectures are designed to minimize impact of DRAM latency
    • Use dram for high density, store data which is used often in smaller, higher speed SRAM cache.

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

flash memory
FLASH Memory
  • Floating gate transistor
    • Presence of charge => “0”
    • Erase Electrically or UV (EPROM)
  • Performance
    • Reads like DRAM (~ns)
    • Writes like DISK (~ms). Write is a complex operation

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

more esoteric storage technologies
More esoteric Storage Technologies?
  • Tunneling Magnetic Junction RAM (TMJ-RAM):
    • Speed of SRAM, density of DRAM, non-volatile (no refresh)
    • New field called “Spintronics”: combination of quantum spin and electronics
    • Same technology used in high-density disk-drives

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37

tunneling magnetic junction
Tunneling Magnetic Junction

EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 37