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Bell Ringer. What is nationalism? Who led a revolt in Haiti? Who led revolutions in Latin America and what country is named after him?. What two major countries of modern Europe were not on the map in the mid-1800s?. Germany and Italy. Today in class …. We will….

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Bell Ringer

  • What is nationalism?
  • Who led a revolt in Haiti?
  • Who led revolutions in Latin America and what country is named after him?
today in class
Today in class…

We will…

Describe how the German/Prussian states and the Italian states were unified into single nations.

You will be able to…


Social Studies

  • Define: Realpolitik
  • Write webs on the unification of Germany and Italy
  • Identify the German leader, Otto von Bismarck, and his philosophy of Realpolitik.
  • Explain how realpolitik was used to unify the German states.
  • Identify the Italian nationalist leaders, Cavour and Garibaldi, and what each accomplished during the unification of Italy.

NEXT TIME/SOON: Quiz on Napoleon, Revolutions & Unifications


Realpolitik = Policy of doing what works, instead of what is “right”

  • What does unification mean?

Unification = to become one; to unite

  • If this is about Germany becoming one, what does that mean about Germany before this?

Germany was divided!

(The same is true of Italy.)

a divided germany
A Divided Germany
  • Following the defeat of Napoleon’s empire and the Congress of Vienna, there were 39 independent states made up Prussia (what is now called Germany.)
  • Nationalism grew in Prussia in the 1800’s.
partner brainstorming
Partner Brainstorming
  • With a partner, list at least 5 things that you think of when you hear “German”.

Prussia Dominates

By 1871 , PRUSSIA was dominant because they had:

1. A united population

2. Factories (industrialized)

3. A strong leader = Otto von Bismarck (OVB)

ovb the iron chancellor
OVB – The Iron Chancellor
  • Prime Minister of Prussia
  • Believed that duty to one’s country was the most important thing of all
  • Wanted to unite the states together
Bismarck’s Belief: Realpolitik
  • The belief that politics should be based on what is best, not on ideals.
ovb said
OVB Said …

“The position of Prussia in Germany will not be determined by its liberalism but by its power ... Not through speeches and majority decisions will the great questions of the day be decided - that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849 - but by iron and blood.”

“A government must not waiver once it has chosen its course. It must not look to the left or right but go forward”

“The main thing is to make history, not to write it”

partner brainstorming1
Partner Brainstorming
  • With your partner, add 3 more descriptions to your definition of “German.”

How Did OVB Unite Germany?

  • 1866: War with Austria
    • As a result, most German states joined Prussia and became a confederation
  • 1871: Franco-Prussian War
    • The confederation became even more united to defeat the French
    • Led to creation of a German nation

OVB became Chancellor of the Second Reich

  • Shared power with Kaiser Wilhelm
      • Kaiser = Emperor

Italy in the 1800’s

  • Divided into a half dozen individual states
    • Austria controlled northern Italy
    • Spain ruled southern Italy
    • Papal States in between
  • Italy was swept with NATIONALISM and wanted to return to a united Italy (like in Ancient Rome).

Cavour United Northern Italy

  • 1852: Italians looked to the state of Sardinia because of their capable Prime Minister, Count Cavour.
  • 1859: Cavour got help from France to fight against the Austrians.
    • Some Northern states also joined.

Garibaldi Joined South w/North

  • Raised an army of 100,000
  • Used guerrilla warfare – Red Shirts
  • Captured Sicily.

Papal States Join Last

  • The last to unite were the PAPAL STATES.
  • Pope received help from France
    • Held Rome until 1870