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The students will examine the Industrial Revolution. Complete Warm ups Complete TAKS Activity Complete Ch 19 Map/Graph Activity Discuss Ch 19 Sections 1&2 Complete Section 1&2 Study Guides. Objectives. Industrial Revolution. Definition

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The students will examine the Industrial Revolution.

Complete Warm ups

Complete TAKS Activity

Complete Ch 19 Map/Graph Activity

Discuss Ch 19 Sections 1&2

Complete Section 1&2 Study Guides

industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
  • Definition
    • the shift from making goods by hand to making them by machine
list of inventions from 1700 1900
List of Inventions from 1700-1900

lawn mower

Mechanical Reaper

Morse Code

pasteurized milk

rubber band

safety pin



blue jeans

Bunsen Burner

peanut Butter

cash register



elevator brake



fountain pen

electric iron


safety matches



paper clip

potato chips





toilet paper



vacuum cleaner



diesel engine

first incandescent light bulb


sewing machine

light bulb

  • battery
  • bi-focal glasses
  • carbonated water
  • thermometer
  • Cotton Gin
  • electricity
  • reflecting telescope
  • hot-air balloon
  • interchangeable parts
  • mayonnaise
  • parachute
  • Metric System
  • Time Zones
  • sandwich
  • steamboat
  • voltage batterycanning
  • anesthesia
  • modern pencil
  • Microphone
  • stethoscope
  • electric motor

1780’s – 1800’s

The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times.

It began in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.

adam smith
Adam Smith
  • Physiocrat:
    • One who searches for natural laws that govern the economy; part of the Enlightenment
laissez faire
  • Government should leave the economy alone
    • No regulations
    • No protection for workers
    • No control of prices
    • No control of wages
  • The guide for the economy is self-interest (one might call it greed).
  • Self-interest will ultimately make it better for everyone.
  • The economy will be guided by an Invisible Hand (market forces).
role of government
Role of Government
  • Protect the citizens from foreign invasion.
  • Protect the citizens from internal enemies.
  • Help build infrastructure (roads, canals, bridges).
law of supply and demand
Law of Supply and Demand
  • Supply: the amount of items at a given price available for sell.
  • Demand: the number of items at a given price that consumers wish to purchase.
  • Law of Supply & Demand: If the demand for an item grows beyond its supply, more producers will enter that market to increase the supply until the market achieves equilibrium. If the demand for a specific item lessens, producers will leave the market and put their resources into more profitable items.
law of competition
Law of Competition
  • Competition is good.
  • Competition keeps prices low.
  • If you cannot produce an item that is competitive in the market, you will go out of business.
  • If you go out of business your resources will be put to use in a more productive way and you will find another place in market.
what is the down side of free enterprise capitalism
What is the down side of Free Enterprise Capitalism?
  • The individual is on his own; every man for himself. If you do not have marketable skills or control of needed resources, you may easily get left behind and never be able to live beyond subsistence in this economic system.


1. Improve agricultural practices

Increased food supply low prices

2. Population grew;

more people to work






3. Britain had money

4. Natural Resources

5. Britain had many markets

throughout Europe

production before the industrial revolution food
Production Before The Industrial Revolution: Food
  • All goods were made by hand or grown on the farm.
  • Farmers grew just enough food to survive.
  • Surpluses might be exchanged for goods made in towns on “Market Days”.
agricultural revolution england
Agricultural Revolution:England
  • Increased use of agricultural machinery and techniques enables the farmer to increase productivity: reaper & iron plow (later tractors)
    • Mechanization requires less people to work the farms.
    • The more land, the more products to sell. The Enclosure Act removes the poor people from the land.
before essential goods
Before: Essential Goods
  • Most necessities, such as clothing, furniture, and tools, were made on the farm or in small shops in the towns and villages.
  • Cottage Industry – (cotton) 2 step slow process of spinning & weaving by individuals.
cottage industry
Cottage Industry
  • The Good:
    • Pro-family (keeps worker near/in home)
    • Worker meets quota and works at own pace
  • The Bad:
    • Owner of raw material could not track its use (inefficient control of production)
    • No on-site management of production
    • Could not mass produce
    • Not in control of equipment
before essential goods1
Before: Essential Goods
  • Manufacturing in towns
      • Some items were made in towns in guild shops
        • Guilds were associations of craftsmen in a certain profession.
        • Craftsmen used simple tools to make cloth, hardware, leather goods, etc.
        • Cottage Industry: Items were, essentially, hand- made by women working out of their homes.
population before industrial revolution
Population Before Industrial Revolution
  • Less than 10% live in cities
  • Most lived in small towns or villages in the countryside.
  • The majority were farmers leasing small plots of land from landowners (subsistence farming).
  • Life and community revolved around the agricultural seasons.

People moved from the country to the city – living conditions in cities were pitiful

  • two new classes evolved – industrial middle class and industrial working class
  • Men were now expected to earn most of the money
family life before industrialization
Family Life: Before Industrialization
  • Living conditions were hard for most people
    • Life revolved around the success of the crops.
    • Most people were malnourished and susceptible to diseases.
    • Frequent diseases and epidemics kept the population relatively stable.
    • Life expectancy was about 30-35 years.
    • Marriage and child bearing occurred during the teenage period.
working before
Working: Before
  • Boys worked in the fields and helped make tools and other necessary implements.
  • Girls worked at home doing necessary chores, such as making clothes, baskets, cooking, cleaning, etc.
  • There was little or no pay other than a place to live and food to eat.
  • Everyone helped out at an early age.
  • No coinage or currency for the public for the easy exchange of goods and services.
overview of industrial revolution
Overview of Industrial Revolution
  • The Industrial Revolution creates great wealth but also great social and economic inequality, prompting a backlash of political, social, and economic reforms.
why did the revolution begin in england
Why did the Revolution begin in England?
  • Because England had the 4 factors for production necessary for industrialization
what are the four factors of production
What are the four factors of production?
  • Land (raw material, natural resources)
  • Labor (skilled and unskilled labor force, management)
  • Capital (money for investments)
  • Entrepreneurs (People with a vision and the ability to make it happen)
  • Natural resources such as:
    • water power and then coal to fuel new machines
    • iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings
    • raw materials such as cotton, hemp, wood, etc.
    • rivers for inland transportation
    • harbors from which merchant ships set sail
  • An increase in population created a surplus of workers
  • Enclosed farms pushed farmers off the land and into the cities
  • Unskilled laborers were needed to run the machines
  • Middle management positions (factory managers, accountants, equipment managers)
  • A strong economic and political stability in England encouraged private investment
  • Banks gave loans to invest in new machinery and to expand operations
  • Business people invested in the manufacturing of new inventions
  • People with a vision who see a need the public will respond to
  • People with skills and knowledge to gather the needed raw material, recruit and organize workers, and arrange for capital and investments
what was the first industry to be transformed by the revolution
What was the first industry to be transformed by the revolution?
  • Textile industry
    • Britain’s textile industry clothed the world in wool, in linen, and cotton.
    • James Watt – improved steam engine 1782…steam power used to spin & weave cotton using coal.
    • By 1840 Britain’s cotton products sold all over the world.
major inventions in the textile industry
Major inventions in the textile industry
  • Inventions that transformed the manufacture of cloth
    • flying shuttle
    • spinning jenny
    • water powered spinning wheels
willowing machine
Willowing Machine
  • Willowing was the breaking up of raw cotton and removing impurities.
  • Willowing machines first began to be used at the end of the 18th century.
  • The machine contained a large drum filled with iron spikes, which loosened and separated the fibers, and a powerful fan which blew away the dust and other impurities through a large pipe.
spinning jenny
Spinning Jenny
  • The Spinning Jenny was an 18th century cotton spinning machine designed by James Hargreaves in 1764 that improved thread production.
  • By turning a single wheel, the operator could now spin eight threads at once.
power loom
Power Loom
  • This invention made it possible for weaving to become a large-scale factory based industry.
  • Before the invention of the power loom it was handloom weavers who made cloth. These were men who worked in the basements of their homes using wooden hand-powered looms to weave cloth.
flyer spinning frame
Flyer Spinning Frame
  • Introduced by Richard Arkwright in 1769, the flyer spinning frame is powered by the drive wheel at the bottom, drawing out the fiber into thread, then twisting it as it is wound onto the bobbins.
water powered mill
Water Powered Mill
  • Water turned the paddles of a wheel, which in turn moved grinding stones or other mechanical devices.
coal industry expands
  • The steam engine drove Britain’s Industrial Revolution using coal.
  • Supply of coal seemed unlimited.
  • Coal transformed the IRON industry
  • Coal had been made in England since the Middle Ages.
  • Henry Cort developed puddling, process of producing better quality of iron.
  • The British iron industry boomed!
  • By 1852, Britain was producing almost 3 million tons of iron annually.
developments in england had an impact on the rest of the world
Developments in England had an impact on the rest of the world
  • Example:
    • England’s cotton came from plantations in the American South, where cotton production skyrocketed in response to demand from the textile mills in England.
    • To meet the demand Southern cotton producers sought to expand into the new territory of the USA, taking slavery with them.
    • The expansion of slavery was one event that led to the American Civil War in 1861-1865.
american cotton production
American Cotton Production
  • Thanks to Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin, cotton production in the U.S. skyrocketed from 1.5 million pounds in 1790 to 85 million pounds in 1810.
age of steam
Age of Steam
  • 1760s James Watt made significant improvement to create an effective and efficient steam engine.
  • Now instead of being near a river, steam power changed the location of factories to where the resources or workers were changing the landscape of England.
transportation expands
Transportation expands
  • Invention of the steam engine, which connected consumers, producers, and suppliers
  • Construction of canals
  • Railroads, which promoted the iron and steel industries, where the Bessemer Process was introduced
  • Construction of better roads
industrialization changes ways of life
Industrialization changes ways of life
  • Leads to urbanization (living in cities) and urban ills
  • Industrialization generates wealth for some but hardship for others
  • As divisions between rich and poor grow, class tensions escalate
effects of industrialization
Effects of Industrialization
  • Size of Cities
    • Tremendous growth in population
    • Some cities specialize in certain industries
    • Factories develop near sources of energy
    • Growth of factories bring job seekers to cities
living conditions
Living Conditions
  • No sanitary codes or building controls
  • Lack of adequate housing, education and police protection
  • Lack of running water and indoor plumbing
  • Workers lived in dark, dirty shelters, whole families crowding into one bedroom
  • Unpaved streets had no drains and collected heaps of garbage.
  • Epidemics or diseases caused by poor water and sanitary conditions regularly swept through slums
  • Lead to a movement called Socialism-government owns and controls means of production.
more about
More about…
  • Polluted water was a major problem in British cities in the 1800s. In London, most drinking water came straight from the Thames River, which was filthy with sewage and industrial waste. In 1849, a cholera epidemic killed 400 Londoners a day.
working conditions
Working conditions
  • Dirty and unsanitary factories
  • Workers running dangerous machines for long hours in unsafe conditions
  • Harsh and severe factory discipline
  • Average worker, including children, spent 14 hours a day at the job, 6 days a week
  • FACTORY ACT of 1833 – children ages 9-13 work only 9 hours a day & ages 13-18 12 hours a day.
child labor
Child Labor
  • Because they could be paid less, children (and women) were often hired instead of men.
  • Children worked 6 a.m. to 7 or 8 p.m.
  • To keep them awake, mill supervisors beat them.
  • Tiny hands around machinery often made this very dangerous for the children.
positive effects of the industrial revolution
Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution
  • Created jobs for workers
  • Contributed to the wealth of nations
  • Fostered technological progress and inventions in transportation, agriculture, and communication
  • Greatly increased the production of goods worldwide
the industrial revolution led to economic social and political reforms
The Industrial Revolution led to economic, social, and political reforms
  • Economic Reforms
    • unions, collective bargaining, strikes
  • Social Reforms
    • eventual end of child labor
    • new wage earning classes from the factory workers
  • Political Reforms
    • laws were passed to protect the workers