PS31C APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lecturer: Sophia S. Morgan September 11, 2007 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PS31C APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lecturer: Sophia S. Morgan September 11, 2007

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    1. PS31C APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lecturer: Sophia S. Morgan September 11, 2007

    2. All science must be applied science, the goal of which is to lighten the toil of everyday life Galileo

    3. Social Psychology & Related Disciplines

    4. Establishing the Foundation

    5. Sociology The study of social institutions and systems The study of groups The study of society The study of social life The study of social interaction and processes The study of social development

    6. Sociology

    7. Sociology The study of extensive power relationships Extensive in two ways Time dimension In a geographic and geopolitical sense.

    8. Sociology Michael Mann Four sources of social power . Ideological Economic Military Political

    9. Sociology Important sociological question Is there a set of ideas that are essential for living and meeting the challenges of the planetary society? Values identified by V.S. Naipaul Do unto others as you would have them do to you; The liberalist creed the pursuit of happiness is defined in terms of the individual and the context of everyday life.

    10. Psychology A definition of psychology would include: Scientific study of mental & physiological processes Scientific study of human behaviour Study of individual differences

    11. Psychology

    12. Psychology Encompasses physiological, personality, pathological and unconscious issues It is the science of mental processes and the effects on behaviour Behaviour therefore has a strong biological basis unconscious, unreflexive and uncontrollable This conceptualization of behaviour affords different pathways to change, such as long-term chemical and therapeutic interventions.

    13. Social Psychology - Definition Social Psychology the scientific attempt to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviours of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other human beings Fiske 2004. Behaviour is dealt with in a limited and defined context Focus on the small group

    14. Social Psychology

    15. Social Psychology Also.. Helps to explain individuals behaviours (usually those that are voluntaristic) and interaction An understanding of the voluntaristic nature of human behaviour helps to pave the way for the interventions of applied social psychology Brings social and psychological features together as relevant to the analysis of processes.

    16. Comparing Related Disciplines

    17. Basic vs Applied Research

    18. Broad Areas of Applied Social Psychology

    19. APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Applied social psychology is Social psychological research and practice in real world settings directed towards the understanding of human social behaviour and the amelioration of social problems Fisher, 1980

    20. APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Applied social psychology encompasses the applications of social psychology methods, theories, principles or research findings to the understanding or solution of social problems. Oscamp and Schultz 1998.

    21. APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

    22. Applied Social Psychology Emphasis on issues and/or social problems It involves interventions and changing social behaviours

    23. FEATURES OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Problem orientation Identify a social problem and find the solution to the problem Design a study to learn more about the problem Analyze available data (theories, principles, research finding) in order to design intervention

    24. FEATURES OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Value Orientation The specification of an issues as a social problem requires a value judgment a personal analysis by the investigator

    25. FEATURES OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Value Orientation Contd Value judgements are practical evaluations of the unsatisfactory or satisfactory character of phenomena subject to our influence (Max Weber 1949)

    26. FEATURES OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Social utility - Practical theories are important if we want to solve social problems Kurt Lewin the knowledge and methods utilized must be useful in solving the problem In resolving a social problem ,focus must be made on specific aspects of the problem that would yield the most impact.

    27. FEATURES OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Focus on social situations Applied social psychologist are concerned with a situational analysis of a problem/issues in contrast to other approaches that tend to stress psychological or personality factors

    28. FEATURES OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY A broad approach Macro level analysis taking account of the wide range of variables that might influence the problem Variety of research methods should be applied.

    29. FEATURES OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Field settings Research is carried out in the natural settings where people live not in an artificial atmosphere of most lab experiments.

    30. Features of the applied approach Practical considerations Time constraints Cost-benefits comparisons Political feasibility

    31. Fishers seven (7) touchstones of Applied Social Psychology Central focus on multi-level analysis of social problems Continuous integration of theory, research and practice Development of middle-range theories stressing the reciprocal interaction of the person and the environment

    32. Fishers seven (7) touchstones of Applied Social Psychology 4. The application of a variety of complementary research methods 5. The expansion of practice expertise partly through interdisciplinary collaboration 6. The adherence to a clearly articulated humanistic value base and a professional code of ethics 7. A commitment to a continuous professional development and role versatility.

    33. Ecological Levels of Analysis .

    34. General roles of the applied social psychologist Scientist/practitioner blend Academic/Non academic Applied Researcher Programme development Programme evaluation Human relations trainer Consultant & change agent Social Activist

    35. Skills of the applied social psychologist Statistics Psychometrics Research programme assessment & Evaluation Programme development Interpersonal and group skills eg. negotiation, mediation, conflict management Consulting

    36. Theory in Applied Social Psychology A theories are intellectual tools for organising data in such a way that one can make inferences or logical transitions from one set of data to another they also serve as guides to the investigation, explanation, organisation and discovery of matters of observable facts Deutch & Krauss (1965) In Hill (2006)

    37. Theory in Applied Social Psychology Theories serve to: Provide a basis for and guide our research process Give an understanding of a particular phenomenon Help us to predict situations and events

    38. Theory in Applied Social Psychology Applying theory How does applied social psychologists use theory? Theory emerges in research and practice or are brought to bear on the finding of studies as a way of explanation (Fisher) Theory is used to guide practices and research in the resolution of social problems Theory developed in a lab setting is tested in social situation taking the theory out for a walk model See Hill (2006) Theory in Applied Social Psychology

    39. BROAD THEORETICAL BASES Self and personality Motivation Learning and social influence Social Cognition Theories of persuasion Groups and inter-group processes Theories of organizational behaviour Social structure and development

    40. Self and personality These theories are concerned with the active individual who has a sense of continuous being and identity

    41. Motivation The activation of behaviour Giving direction to behaviour and behavioural persistence Fords formula: Motivation = Goals + Emotions + Personal Agency Beliefs

    42. Learning and Social Influence Learning Positive and negative reinforcements Social modeling (Bandura 1977) Theories of exchange (kelly and Thibaut 1978) Social Influence refers to how individuals thoughts, feelings and behaviour can be affected or changed by others

    43. Social Cognition Social cognition deals with the cultural shaping of psychological factors and processes Theories capture the broad areas of - attitudes - attribution - impression formation - social judgment etc

    44. Persuasion theories Looks at communication processes and influences Yale model of persuasive communication Theory of reasoned action/Theory of planned behaviour Elaboration likelihood model

    45. Groups and inter-group processes Interpersonal Dynmics Group Dynamics Inter-group relations

    46. Theories of organisational behaviour These theories generally look at the complex nature of organisations Systems theory (katz & Khan) Organisational culture (Schein 1985)

    47. Social structure and development Exploration of macro-social influences on individual or personality characteristics

    48. Social Psychological Principles Approach-avoidance conflict Foot-in-the-door & Door-in-the-face Public commitment Expectations

    49. Issues and challenges in applied social psychology Is social psychology really applicable? - utilisation of theory Applied vs Theoretical conflict Should applied social psychology use experimental research methods? Evidence & Generalisability Unintended consequences Ethical Issues