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UFORE. The i-Tree Shell. What is a “shell”?. General: an interaction between a computer and any other entity (printer, operator, etc.). Windows Explorer Mozilla Firefox Mac Finder Here: a graphical user interface (GUI) that provides access to and exchanges data with UFORE components.

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The i-Tree Shell

what is a shell
What is a “shell”?
  • General: an interaction between a computer and any other entity (printer, operator, etc.).
    • Windows Explorer
    • Mozilla Firefox
    • Mac Finder
  • Here: a graphical user interface (GUI) that provides access to and exchanges data with UFORE components
project setup
Project setup
  • Project decisions
    • Q1: Study area
    • Q2: Sampling type
    • Q3: Plot number and size
    • Q4: Options
    • Q5: Stratification
  • Details in the Manual


project setup1
Project setup
  • Q3: Plot number and size
    • Number
      • 30 – low budget, high error
        • Near ±35%, depending on parameter
      • 100 – medium budget, medium error
        • Near ±20%, depending on parameter
      • 200 – high budget, low error
        • Near ±12%, depending on parameter
    • Size
      • Typically 0.1 acre circle (37.2’ radius)
      • Other possibilities ( Manual)
project setup2
Project setup
  • Q4: Options
    • Long-Term Data (Permanent plots)
      • Allow change to be measured carefully
      • Take longer = cost more
        • 25-33%, depending on tree density
    • Ground Cover and Shrubs
      • Local decision on importance
      • Hard to calculate function or value
plot generation i
Plot generation I
  • Need plots distributed randomly inside study area
  • Three ways
    • Shell can call automatic plot generator
    • Shell can be used for manual plot input
    • Plots can be generated by another program and imported
automatic plot generator
Automatic Plot Generator
  • Extension to ArcMap 9.1
    • Allows choice of
      • Plot number
      • Sampling strategy
      • Stratification
    • Must also have Spatial Analyst extension
  • Generates random plot

centers in a GIS

  • Currently BUGGY!
manual plot generation
Manual Plot Generation
  • Traditional method
    • Map
    • Grid/dot overlay
    • Random number generator
  • Advantages
    • Cheap
    • Does not require software
  • Disadvantages
    • Slow
external plot generation
External Plot Generation
  • Various ways
    • Another GIS (e.g., ArcView 3.x)1

1unsupported legacy program available

    • Randomized GPS coordinates w/in domain ( Excel, e.g.)
    • Municipal software packages
  • Plots and coordinates can be
    • Imported into the Shell
    • Used on the PDA
plot generation output
Plot generation: output
  • Plot maps
    • Need to create
      • Master map of study area for planning
      • Individual ground maps for crew
        • Scaled
        • North oriented
      • View wide enough to locate reference points, narrow enough to see detail
data collection i
Data collection I
  • Means
    • Paper forms
      • Copies in Manual, instruction binder and on CD
      • One set used per plot
    • PDAs
      • Pocket PC platform (2002 or 2003 version only)
      • Much faster and more accurate, once PDAs learned
    • Can be combined (e.g., use paper on dense plots)
    • Both launched through Shell
data collection ii
Data collection II
  • Plot data
    • Reference points
      • Utility pole
      • Hydrant
      • Etc.
    • Vegetation
      • % tree cover
      • % (im)permeable
      • % shrub
      • % plantable
    • Land use
data collection ii1
Data collection II
  • Optional data
    • Ground cover types, amounts
      • Building, turf, bare soil, cement, etc.
    • Shrub types, amounts
      • No regression formulae
      • Describing volumes
      • Must account for missing leaves
data collection ii2
Data Collection II
  • Tree data

NOTE: Tree = any woody vegetation, except vine,

with a DBH ≥ 1 inch

    • If permanent plots: dist./dir. to tree
    • Species, DBH
    • Height
    • Crown depth and width
    • Crown parameters (dieback, etc.)
    • Location around buildings
  • Builds off regression formulae on DBH
  • See “UFORE Tree Fields” handout
data collection ii3
Data Collection II
  • Most data fields clear to urban foresters
  • Exceptions:
    • % Canopy Missing
    • Crown Light Exposure
    • Modifications of FIA (Forest Inventory and Analysis) fields


data collection ii4
Data collection II
  • Details on field data in Manual
    • PDF can be searched for field code on desktop
    • Can cut codes from Word document, load on to PDA as a file, search in field
    • Paper form and PDA both coordinate with Manual
  • Field problems not in Manual: i-Tree support (www.itreetools.org)
outside exercise
Outside Exercise
  • Equipment
    • Plot map
    • PDAs
    • Paper forms
    • Biltmore sticks or D-Tapes
    • “UFORE Tree Fields”
  • Attitude!


The i-Tree Shell

autotransfer i
AutoTransfer I
  • Data entry
    • Paper form data
      • Enter into Shell with Data Entry application
    • PDA data
      • Upload through hot sync to local machine
    • Both end up in i-Tree Grand Database
  • In future: data processing will be done on local machine
  • Now: send to Syracuse FS unit
autotransfer ii
AutoTransfer II
  • Field data up
    • Sent through the shell
      • Shell launches embedded FTP client
      • Shell automatically uploads field data
  • UFORE engine in FS Syracuse calculates
  • Results down
    • Notification from Syracuse FS to client
    • Retrieved through Shell
      • Downloaded automatically
      • Imported into Shell
analysis i
Analysis I
  • Basic
    • Fundamental analyses, e.g.
      • Species, DBH class distributions
      • Total pollution removal
      • Net annual C storage/sequestration by DBH class
analysis iii
Analysis III
  • Analysis (shell)
    • Shell shows 12 most useful analyses
      • Automatically executed
      • Viewing options available
    • Advanced analyses at user’s command
      • Dialogue box allows factor by factor analysis
    • Choice of format (pie, bar, etc.)
analysis ii
Analysis II
  • Advanced
    • UFORE code capable of complex analyses
    • E.g.
      • Carbon sequestration by DBH class by Land Use
      • Pollution removal by condition by DBH class
    • Primarily for researchers
reporting i
Reporting I
  • Former detailed
    • E.g., Brooklyn (2002)
      • Online: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS64575
      • Conceived as a technical scientific report
      • 68pp of tables
      • Very time-consuming work
reporting ii
Reporting II
  • Current enhanced
    • Texas FS report
      • Pete Smith et al
      • Good design
      • Good web sense
        • http://www.houstonregionalforest.org/Report/
reporting iii
Reporting III
  • Report Writer
    • Will be built into shell
    • Simple style
  • Embedded codes pull data from DB of results
  • In development
ufore at work i
UFORE at work I
  • Large number of analyses already conducted
    • Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Beijing, China; Boston, MA; Brooklyn, NY; Calgary, Alberta; Freehold, NJ; Fuenlabrada, Spain; Greenville-Spartanburg, SC; Houston, TX; Hefei, China; Jersey City, NJ; Kent, OH; Minneapolis, MN; Moorestown, NJ; Morgantown, WV; New York, NY; Ningbo, China; Philadelphia, PA; Porto Alegre, Brazil (parks); San Francisco, CA; San Juan, PR, Santiago, Chile; Syracuse, NY; Toronto, Canada; Washington, DC; Wilmington, DE; Woodbridge, NJ.
    • Many others currently in progress
ufore at work ii
UFORE at work II
  • Being used to
    • Establish function and value of lands and forest under development pressure
    • Supply foundation for municipal management of its ecosystem, not just its *own* trees
    • Suggest optimal management strategies
    • Empower advocacy
ufore at work iii
UFORE at work III
  • Future is up to you
  • Wherever urban ecosystems are in question, UFORE can help
    • Development debates
    • Long-term maintenance objectives
    • Restoration goals
  • Great potential to help with some of the most important questions before us today