food security and sustainability gordon port newcastle university gordon port@newcastle ac uk n.
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  1. Food Security and SustainabilityGordon PortNewcastle UniversityGordon.Port@newcastle.ac.uk

  2. Rural Policy and Land Use Environmental constraints Farm level economics Biodiversity Engineering/Energy Waste recycling / nutrients Landscape Agronomy, Crop Protection, Livestock Breeding Food safety Food nutrition

  3. Rural Policy and Land Use Environmental constraints Farm level economics Biodiversity Engineering/Energy Waste recycling / nutrients Landscape Agronomy, Crop Protection, Livestock Breeding Food safety Food nutrition

  4. Nocturnal photosynthesis • Plant Science Challenges for the 21st Century • Achieve higher crop yields per hectare land • Expand agriculture (including bioenergy crops) into marginal lands • Increase water use efficiency of crops

  5. Crassulacean acid metabolism CAM – ‘nocturnal photosynthesis’ -discovered at Newcastle in the 1950s 10% of all plants have CAM CAM plants are the most water-use efficient plants on earth orchids pineapple Clusia – only trees with CAM

  6. 28,000 tonnes H2O/ha/yr 4,500 tonnes/ha/yr 20,000 tonnes/ha/yr A role for CAM in the food and energy crisis? Agave CAM Rice Maize C4 C3 35 tonnes biomass/ha/year 49 tonnes/ha/year 43 tonnes/ha/year CAM plants produce just as much biomass as C3 and C4 crops but with only 20% of the water required

  7. Growing bioenergy crops on marginal lands Agave sisilana, a low input crop for the production of: Fibre – low lignin (non-oil, biol-based fibre) High sugar content – bioethanol and/or other high value commodities (inulin, guar, xanthan) Residue used for bioenergy generation

  8. Development and use of molecular markers in ecological and evolutionary research • Questions: • Evolutionary relationships • Population connectivity • Parentage determination • Broad range of species: • Plants: e.g. Plantago, Tilia, Rhinanthus • Animals: e.g. peafowl, red squirrels, barnacles • Techniques: • Microsatellites • DNA sequencing (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast) • RAPDs

  9. Population and evolutionary genetics in Plantago • P. major and P. intermedia • Contrasting ecology and morphology • How different are they genetically?

  10. Genetic diversity in lime trees, Tiliacordata • Phylogeography: • European wide scale: migration after the ice age • Population and landscape genetics: • UK: ancient trees • Relatedness: • Small scale – gene flow

  11. Cultivar identification and relatedness in Schizostylis (Hesperantha)

  12. Root identification T1 T2 T3 R1 R2 R3 Ash: RAPD analysis Oak: microsatellites

  13. Insect-Resistant Crops Approaches: • Recombinant DNA technology • Molecular Breeding Strategies: • (Bt) fusion proteins • Plant-derived insecticidal proteins • Over expression of endogenous defense genes • RNAi to key metabolic targets

  14. Functional Genomics Approaches to Exploiting Endogenous Defence Genes (either via GM approach or molecular breeding)

  15. Environmental Impact of GMOs Gene flow -To other crops / wild relatives -Invasive potential -Volunteers Horizontal gene transfer Soil organisms Biodiversity Transgenic Crop Human Health Non target Arthropods - Non-target Lepidoptera - Non-target herbivores - Pollinators - Natural enemies; Parasitoids and Predators Other non-targets - Birds

  16. FIRST TROPHIC LEVEL MTI-2 OSR SECOND TROPHIC LEVEL THIRD TROPHIC LEVEL Plutella xylostella Pterotichus madidus

  17. Pest Management Approaches: • Instrumented field experiments • Controlled laboratory studies Strategies: • Integrating biological control • Rational use of pesticides • Preserve beneficial species

  18. New biological agents / targets

  19. Behaviour of pest species Chemical control Biological control Biological control

  20. When conditions are suitable, monitor slugs using at least 10 baited saucer traps spread through the area. (See note 1 regarding monitoring the best practice area) Are there any slugs in the traps? Late January / February Yes Treat with slug pellets when conditions are suitable, and herbicide No Apply herbicide only When conditions are suitable, monitor slugs using at least 10 baited saucer traps spread through the area. (See note 1 regarding monitoring the best practice area) Are there any slugs in the traps? Before cultivation Yes Double cultivate (see note 2) No Single cultivation (see note 2) After planting Use standard pellet practice during the growth of the crop when conditions are suitable Guidelines for control of pest species

  21. Environmental manipulation Fig. 2. Mean days to 1st adult on each plant species. • Managing habitats to • Reduce pest attack • Increase biological control Days to 1st adult Rocket Collard White Indian Cauliflower mustard mustard

  22. Protecting (and using) Biodiversity Pollinator decline Wild Pollinators Biodiversity improvement Flower resources