World map of Brazil • Brazil is in South America
Waterfall formation • Waterfalls occur near the start of the river where the rivers is running fastest. • There needs to be had rock overlying soft rock. • The soft rock is eroded more quickly as it is weaker than the hard rock. • The rocks swirl around at the base of the waterfall to create a plunge pool. • The waterfall continues to erode backwards to create a gorge
Why are rivers important? • Sources of fresh water • Sources of food • Wildlife habitats • Easy access to the sea – so easy to sell goods • Farming – when rivers flood they spread fertile silt which helps crops to grow
Conditions in shanty towns • The conditions in shanty towns are very bad:Often you will find:· No fresh water· No toilet facilities· No schools· No healthcare· Lots of diseases· Lots of rubbish· Roads not tarred· Poorly paid jobs
What are the houses like? • The houses are often built on land that is unsuitable housing - marshes, on steep hills and near airports and motorways.They are often illegal and made by people who migrate from the countryside.The houses are made up of:· Corrugated iron· Plastic· Wood· Bin bags· Broken bricks· Anything people can find
How can we make shanty towns better? • People use a self-help scheme: • This is where people get a loan and use it to improve their lives. • People but breezeblocks to make their houses stronger and ceramic roof tiles to stop the rain. • Schools are built to improve the skills of the children and hospitals built to improve the health of the local population. • Water pipes are put in to give people freshwater and toilets are plumbed in, so all waste is taken away preventing the spread of disease. • Dirt roads are tarred over so when it rains the roads do not turn to mud making travel easier.
How can we tell how poor or rich a country is? • We can do this by measuring how developed a country is. Development refers to how socially, economically and politically advanced a country is.We can measure this using a variety of measures known as development indicators.
Where do people live in Brazil? • The map on the next slide shows where and how many different people live. There are a number of factors which can influence where people live. In Brazil most people live by the coast and it is where most of Brazil's big cities are. They were built near the coast:· The land is flat· The sea allowed people to get easy food· The sea allows people to sell goods across the ocean· There was no rainforest • Very few people in Brazil live in the north and west of Brazil because:· the land is hilly and uneven· the land is marshy and too wet to build upon· the rainforest is very dense and thus has to be removed – this is expensive
Migration from rural to urban areas? • Push factors: • A push factor is something that forces you away from the countryside:· No jobs· Drought – no rain for a long period of time, no food· Flooding· War· Persecution – for skin colour or being foreign· No schools· High rate of crime· Lack of adequate healthcare facilities
Migration from rural to urban areas? • Pull factors: • A pull factor is something that attracts to the cities:· Lots of job opportunities· Safety· Good schools· Low rate of crime· Good healthcare facilities· The bright lights of the city· A range of entertainment facilities
How is the rainforest being destroyed? • Logging (cutting down trees) – mahogany & teak • Make furniture • Farming • Cattle ranching – beef for McDonalds • Palm oil – used for pizza & biscuits • Mining • Gold, tin, iron • Hydro-electric power – dams are used to provide electricity for people in nearby towns
What problems are caused by deforestation (cutting down the trees)? • Logging • Animal habitats are lost • Plant & animals can become extinct • Farming • Jaguars are shot for hunting the cows • Mining • Lots of pollution (land & water) from the mining process • Hydro-electric power • Large area of land is flooded behind the dam so plants and animals (who cannot move quickly) die
How can the rainforest be sustainably managed? • Afforestation – planting two trees for every tree cut down • Wildlife corridors – maintaining ‘corridors’ of trees in urban areas so animals can move through safely • Selective logging – only cutting down trees that are a certain species or age • Rubber tapping – collect rubber from trees but do not cut them down