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  1. How to Use This Presentation • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” • To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. • From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. • From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. • You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

  2. Resources Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep

  3. Chapter 3 Biochemistry Table of Contents Section 1 Carbon Compounds Section 2 Molecules of Life

  4. Section 1 Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Objectives • Distinguishbetween organic and inorganic compounds. • Explainthe importance of carbon bonding in biological molecules. • Identify functional groups in biological molecules. • Summarizehow large carbon molecules are synthesized and broken down. • Describehow the breaking down of ATP supplies energy to drive chemical reactions.

  5. Section 1 Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Carbon Bonding • Organic compoundscontain carbon atoms and are found in living things. • Most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon atoms.

  6. Section 1 Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Carbon Bonding, continued • Carbon atoms can readily form four covalent bonds with other atoms including other carbon atoms. The carbon bonds allow the carbon atoms to form a wide variety of simple and complex organic compounds.

  7. Section 1 Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Carbon Bonding

  8. Section 1 Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Functional Groups • Functional groupsare groups of atoms that influence the properties of molecules and the chemical reactions in which the molecules participate.

  9. Section 1 Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Large Carbon Molecules • Condensation reactionsjoin monomers (small simple molecules) to form polymers. A condensation reaction releases water as a by-product. • In ahydrolysis reaction, water is used to split polymers into monomers.

  10. Section 1 Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Energy Currency • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stores and releases energy during cell processes, enabling organisms to function.

  11. Section 1 Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Comparing ADP and ATP

  12. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Objectives • Distinguishbetween monosaccharides, disaccharides,and polysaccharides. • Explainthe relationship between amino acids and protein structure. • Describethe induced fit model of enzyme action. • Compare the structure and function of each of the different types of lipids. • Comparethe nucleic acids DNA and RNA.

  13. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom. • Carbohydrates are a source of energy and are used as structural materials in organisms.

  14. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Carbohydrates

  15. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Carbohydrates, continued • Monosaccharides • Carbohydrates are made up of monomers calledmonosaccharides.

  16. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Carbohydrates, continued • Disaccharidesand Polysaccharides • Two monosaccharides join to form a double sugar called adisaccharide. • A complex sugar, orpolysaccharide, is made of three or more monosaccharides.

  17. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Disaccharides

  18. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Proteins • Proteinsare organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. • Proteins have many functions including structural, defensive, and catalytic roles.

  19. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Proteins, continued • Amino Acids • Proteins are made up of monomers called amino acids. The sequence of amino acids determines a protein’s shape and function.

  20. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Amino Acid

  21. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Proteins, continued • Dipeptides and Polypeptides • Two amino acids are joined by peptide bonds to form a dipeptide. • A long chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide.

  22. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Structure of Proteins

  23. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Proteins, continued • Enzymes • Enzymesspeed up chemical reactions and bind to specific substrates. • The binding of a substrate with an enzyme causes a change in the enzyme’s shape and reduces the activation energy of the reaction.

  24. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Enzyme Activity

  25. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Lipids • Lipidsare nonpolar molecules that store energy and are an important part of cell membranes.

  26. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Fats

  27. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Lipids, continued • Fatty Acids • Most lipids contain fatty acids, unbranched carbon molecules that have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end.

  28. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Fatty Acids

  29. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Lipids, continued • Triglycerides • Triglyceridesconsist of three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.

  30. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Lipids, continued • Phospholipids • Phospholipids, which make up cell membranes, consist of two fatty acids and one glycerol molecule.

  31. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Lipids, continued • Waxes • Awaxis made of one long fatty acid chain joined to one long alcohol. • Steroids • Asteroidis composed of four fused carbon rings.

  32. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Nucleic Acids • A nucleic acid is a large and complex organic molecule that stores and transports information.

  33. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Structure of Nucleic Acids

  34. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Nucleic Acids

  35. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Nucleic Acids, continued • The nucleic aciddeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)contains genetic information for cell activities. • Ribonucleic acid (RNA)molecules play many key roles in building of proteins and can act as enzymes.

  36. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 DNA Overview

  37. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

  38. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following is not a function of polysaccharides? A. energy source B. energy storage C. structural support D. storage of genetic information

  39. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 1. Which of the following is not a function of polysaccharides? A. energy source B. energy storage C. structural support D. storage of genetic information

  40. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following statements is false? F. A wax is a lipid. G. Starch is a lipid. H. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. J. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.

  41. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following statements is false? F. A wax is a lipid. G. Starch is a lipid. H. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. J. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.

  42. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following molecules stores hereditary information? A. ATP B. DNA C. protein D. carbohydrates

  43. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following molecules stores hereditary information? A. ATP B. DNA C. protein D. carbohydrates

  44. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 4. What is the name of the molecule in plants that stores sugars? F. starch G. protein H. cellulose J. glycogen

  45. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 4. What is the name of the molecule in plants that stores sugars? F. starch G. protein H. cellulose J. glycogen

  46. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The figure below illustrates the basic structure of a cell membrane. Use the figure to answer the questions that follow. 5. Which of the following molecules make up the basic structure of a cell membrane? A. waxes B. steroids C. fatty acids D. phospholipids

  47. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The figure below illustrates the basic structure of a cell membrane. Use the figure to answer the questions that follow. 5. Which of the following molecules make up the basic structure of a cell membrane? A. waxes B. steroids C. fatty acids D. phospholipids

  48. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The figure below illustrates the basic structure of a cell membrane. Use the figure to answer the questions that follow. 6. The “tails” of the molecules in the figure orient away from water. Which of the following describes the tail’s movement away from water? F. polar G. adhesive H. hydrophilic J. hydrophobic

  49. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The figure below illustrates the basic structure of a cell membrane. Use the figure to answer the questions that follow. 6. The “tails” of the molecules in the figure orient away from water. Which of the following describes the tail’s movement away from water? F. polar G. adhesive H. hydrophilic J. hydrophobic

  50. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 7. simple sugars : carbohydrates :: amino acids : A. lipids B. proteins C. nucleic acids D. amino acids