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  1. Writing the Essay Using an outline and expanding the thesis to build the first three paragraphs of an essay.

  2. Where do I start? • Consider the thesis! • Start general, then get specific. • Opening Sentence: John Berryman had two consistencies throughout his short and tragic life: poetry and vice. 

  3. Make the trip to specificity • Don’t stay general for too long. • Zero in on the target from all angles. • The complexity of the thesis dictates the introduction. NEXT SENTENCES: Berryman was noted for both his poetry and his excessive use of alcohol.  However, his alcoholism, like some of his poetry, was only a symptom of a deeper issue in his life. 

  4. Step to another aspect of the thesis • I need to allude to a different aspect of my thesis with my next sentence. This issue was overshadowed by his myriad accomplishments in the field of poetry.

  5. Where do I go from here? • Give added information about previous sentence. • Bring in alcohol problems. Berryman committed his life to poetry and the teaching of poetry, and his commitment showed in both the classroom and the printed word.

  6. Next sentence The gradual evolution of his poetic career from consistent but un-inspired craftsman to a truly original poet masked his personal troubles from those that did not know him well, as did his magnanimous teaching style. 

  7. Final Sentence of Paragraph Those that did know him well were aware of his alcoholism, but this knowledge, like the alcoholism itself, masked a larger problem.

  8. Thesis Statement • Reference to the poem, followed by thesis. This larger problem  is reflected in one of his final works of poetry, “Sole Watchman.” In this poem, Berryman battles with his various desires, and through those battles reveals that the issue driving his life and work is his lack of self-confidence.

  9. Restate a Driving Idea with Support • Highlight key problems • Emphasize uncertainty This fact is well-hidden behind his plethora of faults; however, his repetitive use of imperative structure, his unintentional spotlight on his drinking problem, and his use of ambiguous word choice around emotionally troubling topics combine to send a shiver of self-doubt through the poem.

  10. Introduce without Repeating • Imperative structures goes first • New word choice and shifted comment Berryman’s use of many imperative structures throughout “Sole Watchman” might be the most obvious evidence of his self-confidence issues.

  11. Topic Sentence • Clearly links to thesis • Strong enough to drive a paragraph These structures shape and drive the poem, leaving the reader with the sense that the narrator is both demanding and begging for something consistently throughout the work.

  12. Support Sentences • Quotes must integrate smoothly • Leave nothing to the reader Berryman begins this impression with the first line, which opens with a noun of address and jumps right to a request and demand: “guard me / from my flicker of impulse lust” (Berryman 1-2).

  13. More Support Sentences This is only the first of many request/demand/pleas from Berryman to God. He has the deep-seated feeling that he is incapable, on his own, of fighting off the “flicker” of lust as it arises within him.

  14. Transition • Must be clear • Must link ideas His next imperative structure, “Teach me / to see them as sisters & daughters” (Berryman 2-3), is a reasonable plea considering his first request, but the power begged for in his requests rises dramatically in the following stanza.

  15. FINAL REMINDERS • Make thesis and topic sentences clear • Integrate quotes well • Include sufficient support • Leave nothing to the reader! • All must go back to the thesis! • Interpretation makes the work better!