Chapter 1. Science, Society, and Criminological Research. Reasoning about the Social World. Social vs. physical world Ask questions such as: why people do what they do how organizations and agencies function how people are affected by their experiences
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Science, Society, and Criminological Research
Overgeneralization: Methods - I“All school shooters are depressed loners.”
Selective Observation: “All school shooters are depressed loners.”Avoid Errors in Reasoning through Use of Good Research Methods - II
Descriptive Methods - III
Define and describe, count
Who? What? Where? When? How many?
Gather more information on newly identified areas/concerns
What’s going on?
Cause and effect
Effects of intervention
What is the magnitude of youth violence?
How do schools respond to gun violence?
What factors are related to youth delinquency and violence?
Do violence prevention programs in schools work?Research in Practice
When we see results of research studies, how do we know what type of research we are seeing?
Your first clue is that different research methods often answer different research questions.
How do you think we know how many victimizations occur? Methods - IIIDescriptive Research: Crime Victimization
How might a researcher collect information about such a sensitive subject?Exploratory Research: Date Rape
What is it?
Is it a new phenomenon?
Who are the victims of date rape?
In what situations does it occur?
Is race related to how high school students believes their fathers would react to their drinking?Explanatory Research: Parental Attitudes toward Teen Drinking
Did the crackdown on speeding reduce fatalities? fathers would react to their drinking?Evaluation: Effectiveness of a Crackdown on Speeding
Agreement among different researchers on what is happening in the social world
Positivist/Postpositivist fathers would react to their drinking?
Test ideas against empirical reality without becoming invested in the outcome
Plan and execute research systematically
Document all procedures and make them available to other researchers
Clarify assumptions on which research is based
Define all terms
Maintain skepticism about current knowledge
Replicate studies to build and refine theory
Search for patterns in social behaviors or relationships
Identify stakeholders (people to whom the subject of the research is important) and ask them about their “claims, concerns, and issues”
Share these claims, concerns, and issues with other stakeholder groups to obtain their perspectives
Focus further investigation on areas of disagreement among stakeholder groups
Work with stakeholder groups to attempt to reach consensus in areas of disagreementDifferent Philosophies Lead to Different Research Activities