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Project on VB Control Structures. Prepared By : Sudhir Kataria PGT Computer Sc. K V Chamera II. Detailed Lesson Plan. Project Summary.

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project on vb control structures

ProjectonVB Control Structures

Prepared By : Sudhir Kataria

PGT Computer Sc.

K V Chamera II

project summary
Project Summary
  • This project named “Control Structure” is mainly focused on the working principle of various control Structures in VB and their implementation in Programming.
  • Various Practical Examples have been included in this project relating to real life problems for the better understanding of the concepts.
  • Programming questions, Output related questions are formed so as to improve the logical & problem solving ability of the students.
learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Working principles of various types of control structures in VB.
  • Syntax & semantics of various statements in VB.
  • Implementation of Control structures in Programming.
  • Connecting real-world entities using control structures.
  • Solving real-life problems using control structures.
  • Enhancement of Logical & Problem solving ability of the learner.
assessment procedures
Assessment Procedures
  • Students performance will be judged/assessed by inspecting the following factors :
  • Logic in Programming.
  • Efficiency & Effectiveness of Programs.
  • Usage of various control structures.
  • Correct syntax.
  • Correct code.
  • Following stylistic guidelines while programming i.e. object naming conventions, meaningful object names, proper indentation & spacing, prettyprinting style etc.
implementation procedures
Implementation Procedures
  • Students will be explained about the working principle of individual statement with the help of its proper syntax and example.
  • After explaining working principle of every statement, students will be given Practical Examples, implemented using VB language on Computer.
  • Students will be demonstrated the usage and working of every statement in variety of ways, according to the options available in the syntax.
implementation procedures7
Implementation Procedures
  • Students will be given practical questions to solve and implement using VB language.
  • After implementing every type of control structure, students will be given a Home Assignment based on the statements studied.
  • Students will be given a consolidated Assignment in the end of the chapter so as to test the logical ability of the children and their understanding about the different types of control structures and their implementation.
resources used
Resources Used
  • I am in teaching profession from last 12 years so this complete lesson plan, assessment procedure, programming questions, output related questions etc., are formed with my previous experience and knowledge. Still I would like to mention few resources I have used for the preparation of this Project :
  • Text book of Informatics Practices by Sumita Arora.
  • Previous year CBSE Board question papers.
  • Computer.
vb control structures

VB Control Structures

Created By : Sudhir Kataria

PGT Computer Sc.

K V Chamera II

control flow
Control Flow
  • In a program, statements may be executed sequentially, selectively or iteratively. Every programming language provides constructs to support sequence, selection or iteration. So there are three types of programming constructs :
  • Sequential Constructs
  • Selection Constructs
  • Iterative Constructs
sequential construct
Sequential Construct
  • The sequential construct means the statements are being executed sequentially. This represents the default flow of statements.

Stament 1

Stament 2

Stament 3

selection construct
Selection Construct
  • The selection construct means the execution of statement(s) depending upon the condition-test. If a condition evaluates to true, a course-of-action (a set of statements) is followed otherwise another course-of-action is followed. This construct is also called decision construct as it helps in decision making.
selection construct13
Selection Construct

One course-of-action

true

Condition

?

Statement 1

Statement 2

false

Statement 1

Another course-of-action

Statement 2

iterative constructs
Iterative Constructs
  • The iterative or repetitive constructs means repetition of a set-of-statements depending upon a condition-test. A set-of-statements are repeated again and again till the condition or Boolean Expression evaluates to true. The iteration constructs are also called as looping constructs.
iterative construct
Iterative Construct

false

Condition

?

The exit condition

True

Statement 1

The loop body

Statement 2

selection constructs
Selection Constructs
  • VB provides two types of selection construct :
  • 1) If statement
  • 2) Select Case statement
  • The If Statement : If statement of VB comes in various forms & are given below:
  • 1) If..Then Statement
  • 2) If..Then..Else Statement
  • 3) If..Then..ElseIf Statement
  • 4) Nested Ifs
if then statement
If..Then Statement
  • Def. : An If..Then statement tests a particular condition; if the condition evaluates to true, a course-of-action is followed otherwise it is ignored.
  • Syntax :

If (boolean expression) Then

statements

End If

if then statement18
If..Then Statement
  • Example 1. :

If (Num>0) Then

Print “It is a positive number”

End if

  • Example 2 :

If txtAge.Text>=18 Then

Print “You are eligible to vote”

End if

if then else statement
If..Then..Else Statement
  • If..Then..Else statement provides an alternate choice to the user i.e. if the condition is true then a set of statements are executed otherwise another set of statements are executed.
  • Syntax :

If (boolean Expression) Then

VB Statement(s)

Else

VB Statement(s)

End If

examples of if then else
Examples of If..Then..Else
  • Example 1 :

If txtAge.Text>=18 Then

Print “You are eligible to vote”

Else

Print “Sorry, You are not eligible to vote”

End If

  • Example 2 :

If Num Mod 2=0 Then

Print “It is an Even Number”

Else

Print “It is an Odd Number”

End If

if then elseif statement
If..Then..ElseIf Statement
  • If..Then..ElseIf statement is used to test a number of mutually exclusive cases and only executes one set of statements for the case that is true first.
  • Syntax :

If (Boolean Expression) Then

Statement(s)

ElseIf (Boolean Expression 2) Then

Statement(s)

ElseIf (Boolean Expression 3) Then

Statement(s)

:

[ Else

Statement(s)

End If

example of if then elseif
Example of If..Then..ElseIf

If (Age<=4) Then

Print “Your rate is free.”

ElseIf (Age<=12) Then

Print “You qualify for the children’s rate.”

ElseIf (Age<65) Then

Print “You must pay full rate”

Else

Print “You qualify for the seniors’ rate.”

End If

nested ifs
Nested Ifs
  • A nested If is an if that has another If in its if’s body or in its else’s body. The nested if can have one of the following three forms :

1. If (expresssion 1) Then

If (expression 2 ) Then

Statement 1

[Else

Statement 2

End If

Else

body-of-else]

End If

nested ifs24
Nested Ifs

2. If (expression 1) Then

body-of-if

Else

:

If (expression 2) Then

Statement-1

[Else

Statement-2]

End If

nested if s
Nested If’s

3)If (expression 1) Then

:

If (expression 2) Then

Statement-1

[Else

Statement-2]

End If

Else

If (expression 3) Then

Statement-3

[Else

Statement-4]

:

End If

End If

example of nested if s
Example of Nested If’s

If Num>0 Then

Print “It is a positive number”

Else

If Num<0 Then

Print “It is a negative number”

Else

Print “The number is equal to zero”

End If

End If

select case statement
Select-Case Statement
  • Select-Case is a multiple branching statement and is used to executed a set of statements depending upon the value of the expression. It is better to use Select-Case statement in comparison to If..Then..ElseIf Statement when the number of checks are more. There are 3 different forms of using Select-Case statements and are given below :
different forms of select case
Different forms of Select-Case

1. Select Case : Simplest Form [Exact match]

Select Case Expression

Case Value

’one or more visual basic statements

Case Value

’one or more visual basic statements

Case Else :

’one or more visual basic statements

End Select

example of form 1
Example of Form 1

Select Case byMonth

Case 1,3,5,7,8,10,12

number_of_days=31

Case 2

number_of_days=28

Case 4,6,9,11

number_of_days=30

End Select

syntax of form 2
Syntax of Form 2

Select Case : Second Form [Relational Test]

Select Case Expression

Case is relation :

’one or more visual basic statements

Case is relation :

’one or more visual basic statements

[Case Else :

’one or more visual basic statements

End Select

example of form 2
Example of Form 2

Select Case marks

Case Is < 50

Result = “Fail”

Case Is < 60

Result = “Grade B”

Case Is < 75

Result = “Grade A”

Case Else

Result = “Grade A+”

End Select

third form of select case
Third Form of Select Case

Select Case : Third Format [Range Check]

Select Case Expression

Case exp1 To exp2:

’one or more visual basic statements

Case exp1 To exp2:

’one or more visual basic statements

[Case Else:

’one or more visual basic statements

End Select

example of form 3
Example of Form 3

Select Case Age

Case 2 to 4 : Print “PreNursery”

Case 4 to 6 : Print “Kindergarden”

Case 6 to 10 : Print “Primary”

Case Else : Print “Others”

End Select

home assignment 1
Home Assignment 1
  • Write a program in VB to compare three no’s and print the smallest number among these no’s.
  • Write a program in VB to check the eligibilty of a person to vote. Display a message “You are eligible to vote” if the age of the person is greater than or equal to 18 otherwise print “Sorry! You are not eligible to vote”
  • Write a program to compare two no’s and then print the square and cube of the larger number among these no’s.
home assignment
Home Assignment
  • Write a program to display the grade obtained by the child according to the marks obtained by him/her. Criteria for assigning the grades is given below : If marks are

>=90 - Grade is A

<90 and >80 – Grade is B

<80 and >=70 – Grade is C

<70 and >=60 – Grade is D

<60 – Grade is E

iterative constructs looping structures
Iterative Constructs (Looping Structures)
  • Loop : A loop is said to be the set of instructions which are repeated again and again in a program.
  • Types of Loops in VB :
  • Sentinel-controlled Loop Structures : repeat statements until a special value called sentinel value (or the terminating value) is reached.
  • Counter-controlled Loop Structures : repeat the set of statements until the value specified by the counter variable is reached.
looping structures
Looping Structures
  • VB offers broadly following three types of looping structures :
  • For..Next
  • Do Loop

a) Do While..Loop

b) Do..Loop While

c) Do Until..Loop

d) Do..Loop Until

  • While..Wend
for next statement
For..Next Statement
  • This type of statement is used when the user knows in advance how many times the loop is going to be executed.
  • Syntax :

For <counter Variable>=<start_val> To <end_val> Step <increment/Decrement Value>

‘ One or more VB Statements

Next <counter Variable>

examples
Examples
  • Example 1 : Generate natural no’s from 1 to 100

For I = 1 To 100

Print I

Next I

  • Example 2 : Generate first 20 even no’s.

For E = 2 to 40 Step 2

Print E

Next E

more examples
More Examples
  • Example 3 : Generate odd no’s from 100 to 30 in a list box.

For O = 99 to 31 Step -2

ListO.AddItem(O)

Next O

  • Example 4 : Generate table of any number N.

For T = 1 To N

Print N; “*”; T; “=”; N*T

Next T

more examples41
More Examples
  • Example 5 : Find factorial of a given number N.

:

Fact=1

For I= 1 to N

Fact = Fact * I

Next I

Print “Factorial of ”; N; “=”; Fact

:

home assignment 2
Home Assignment 2
  • Write Programs for the following problems :
  • To Generate all the natural no’s from 200 to 500.
  • To Generate the table of 10.
  • To Generate all the even no’s from 200 to 400 in reverse order.
  • To Print first 20 multiples of the number input by the user.
do loop structures
Do..Loop Structures
  • Do While..Loop : Do While loop is an entry controlled loop in which the condition is placed at the entry point. This statement executes the statements specified in the body of the loop till the condition evaluates to true. The loop may not be executed at all the if the condition is initially false.
  • Syntax :

Do While <condition or boolean expression>

‘ One or more VB Statements

Loop

examples of do while loop
Examples of Do While..Loop
  • Example 1 : Never executes loop

Dim A as Byte

A=10

Do While A>10

A=A-1

Loop

  • Example 2 : Executes loop

Dim P as Byte

P=20

Do While P>5

P=P-2

Loop

do loop while
Do..Loop While
  • Do Loop While is an exit controlled loop as the condition is placed at exit point. The body of the loop is going to be executed at least once whether the condition evaluates to true or false. Loop is executed as long as the result of the condition remains true.
  • Syntax :

Do

One or more VB Statements

Loop While <condition or Boolean Expression>

examples46
Examples
  • Example 1 :

Do

num = InputBox (“Enter a number”)

sum = sum + num

Loop While num < > 0

  • Here the statements inside the loop will be executed once no matter what the comparison test evaluates to.
do until loop
Do..Until Loop
  • Do Until loop is an entry controlled loop in which the condition is placed at the entry point. This statement executes the statements specified in the body of the loop till the condition evaluates to false. The loop may not be executed at all the if the condition is initially true.
  • Syntax :

Do Until <condition or boolean expression>

‘ One or more VB Statements

Loop

examples of do until loop
Examples of Do Until..Loop
  • Example 1 : Never executes loop

Dim A as Byte

A=10

Do Until A<10

A=A-1

Loop

  • Example 2 : Executes loop

Dim P as Byte

P=20

Do Until P<5

P=P-2

Loop

do loop until
Do..Loop Until
  • Do Loop Until is an exit controlled loop as the condition is placed at exit point. The body of the loop is going to be executed at least once whether the condition evaluates to true or false. Loop is executed as long as the result of the condition remains false.
  • Syntax :

Do

One or more VB Statements

Loop Until <condition or Boolean Expression>

examples50
Examples
  • Example 1 :

Do

num = InputBox (“Enter a number”)

sum = sum + num

Loop Until num = 0

  • Here the statements inside the loop will be executed once no matter what the comparison test evaluates to.
while wend
While..Wend
  • While..Wend loop is functionally equivalent to the Do While..Loop. It executes a set of VB statements till the condition evaluates to true.
  • Syntax :

While <Condition>

one or more vb statements

Wend

examples52
Examples
  • Example 1 : Generate the sum of first 10 natural no’s

I = 1

While I<=10

Sum = Sum + I

I = I + 1

Wend

Print “Sum of 10 natural no’s = ” ; Sum

nested loops
Nested Loops
  • A loop within another loop is called as Nested Loop.
  • Example :

For I = 1 to 5

For J = 1 To 3

Print J

Next J

Print

Next I

Inner Loop

Outer Loop

working of nested loops
Working of Nested Loops
  • In nested loops the inner loop is executed completely for one time execution of the outer loop. In the Previous example the Inner Loop will be executed three times for every execution of the outer loop.
  • Nested loops are very useful when there is a requirement to generate different kind of patterns as output.
examples55
Examples
  • Example : Program to generate the output given below :

1

2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5

  • Sol :

For I = 1 To 5

For J = 1 To I

Print I;

Next J

Print

Next I

home assignment 3 nested loops
Home Assignment 3 – Nested Loops
  • Write programs to generate the following patterns :
  • 1 2) 1 2 3 4 5

1 2 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 3 4 1 2

1 2 3 4 5 1

  • A

A B

A B C

A B C D

home assignment 4 output related questions
Home Assignment 4 – Output Related Questions
  • Specify the output of the following output related questions, assume that variables are declared :

1) sum=0 2) sum = 0

For I = 1 To 4 p=2 : q=4

For J = 1 To 3 Do While p<=10

sum = sum + J If p Mod 2 = 0 Then

Next J sum = sum + p

Print “Sum = ”;sum End If

Next I p=p+1

Loop

Print sum

output related questions
Output related questions

3) R=5 : S=3 4) M=2 : N=4

Do Do Until M>12

Print R, S N = N + M

R = R + 1 If M Mod 3 = 0 Then

If R = 7 Then N = N - M

Exit Do Else

End If N = N + M

S = S + R End If

Loop While R <=10 M=M+1

Loop

Print M, N

home assignment 5
Home Assignment - 5
  • Programming Questions : Develop programs for the followings :
  • To generate the mirror image of the number entered by the user.
  • To generate the prime numbers between 100 and 700.
  • To Check whether the number entered by the user is a prime number or not.
  • To print first 30 multiples of the number entered by the user.
  • To generate the factorial of the number input by the user.
home assignment 560
Home Assignment - 5
  • To generate the Fibonacci series upto first 15 terms i.e. 0 1 1 2 3 5 8…………..
  • To find the sum of all the numbers divisible by 7 from 100 to 200.
  • To check whether the year entered by the user is leap year or not.
  • To find and print the sum of digits of the number entered by the user.
  • To find and print the product of digits of the number accepted from the user.
assessment tools
Assessment Tools
  • Students will be given Programming problems, output and error finding questions to test whether they understood the various concepts taught through this presentation.
  • Various parameters are used to check the understanding of the concept and its implementation in Programming.
  • All the parameters mention in the next slide have their own importance, so all these parameters needs to be checked by the Teacher teaching Programming.