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Ecosystems & Communities. Organisms & the Environment. Every organism affects its environment, & in turn is affected by its environment. Remember! Communities & the environment they live in make up an ecosystem. So, ecosystems are affected by 2 types of factors:

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Presentation Transcript
organisms the environment
Organisms & the Environment
  • Every organism affects its environment, & in turn is affected by its environment.
  • Remember! Communities & the environment they live in make up an ecosystem. So, ecosystems are affected by 2 types of factors:
    • Abiotic Factors: nonliving (temperature, soil, etc.)
    • Biotic Factors: living
the role of climate in an ecosystem
The Role of Climate in an Ecosystem
  • Weather: day-to-day conditions of the Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time & place
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Precipitation
    • Humidity
    • Weather Patterns
the role of climate in an ecosystem1
The Role of Climate in an Ecosystem
  • Climate: the average conditions in a region over several decades
    • Affects the soil, vegetation, etc.
    • Described by temperature & precipitation
the role of climate in an ecosystem2
The Role of Climate in an Ecosystem
  • Temperature is determined by latitude/angle of sunlight.
the role of climate
The Role of Climate
  • Polar: 90-66.5 degrees N or S (within the Arctic & Antarctic circles)
  • Temperate: from the lines of Tropic of Cancer & Capricorn to 66.5 degrees N or S
  • Tropical: between the Tropic of Cancer & Capricorn
other factors of weather climate
Other Factors of Weather & Climate
  • Upwelling: flow of denser cold water from the poles parallel to the ocean bottom & eventually rising in warmer regions

Winds along the equator (dotted line) create currents, which are then diverted north & south. The cold, deep waters from below rise to the surface to replace these diverted waters, causing upwelling.

other factors of weather climate1
Other Factors of Weather & Climate
  • Greenhouse Effect: the natural situation in which heat is retained by greenhouse gases (CO2, methane, water vapor, etc.)
    • If these gases were not present, the Earth would be 30 degrees Celsius cooler & unlivable!
biomes
Biomes
  • A collection of ecosystems with the same climate & dominant communities
    • Aquatic: in water
    • Terrestrial: on land

Tundra

Desert

aquatic biomes
Aquatic Biomes
  • Photic Zone: where light penetrates (shallow water)
  • Aphotic Zone: no light (deep water)
  • Estuary: where fresh & salt water meet (end of a river)
  • Tidal Zone: beach front
slide11

Photic Zone

  • Aphotic Zone
  • Estuary
  • Tidal Zone

Photic Zone!

slide12

Photic Zone

  • Aphotic Zone
  • Estuary
  • Tidal Zone

Aphotic Zone!

slide13

Photic Zone

  • Aphotic Zone
  • Estuary
  • Tidal Zone

Estuary!

slide14

Photic Zone

  • Aphotic Zone
  • Estuary
  • Tidal Zone

Tidal Zone! They can go from low tide to high tide!

slide25
Hmm…

What types of species do you think live in the grasslands?

What types of adaptations are necessary for living in the desert? The rainforest?