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Figure 12.4. Experiment. Conclusion. P Generation. w . w. P Generation. X. X. X. Y. w . F 1 Generation. All offspring had red eyes. w. Sperm. Eggs. w . w . F 1 Generation. w . Results. w. F 2 Generation. w . Sperm. Eggs. w . w . w . F 2 Generation.

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figure 12 4

Figure 12.4

Experiment

Conclusion

P

Generation

w

w

P

Generation

X

X

X

Y

w

F1

Generation

All offspring

had red eyes.

w

Sperm

Eggs

w

w

F1

Generation

w

Results

w

F2

Generation

w

Sperm

Eggs

w

w

w

F2

Generation

w

w

w

w

w

slide2

X = orange

  • X = black
  • MALES:
    • XY = orange
    • XY = black
  • FEMALES:
    • XX = orange
    • X X = black
    • X X = orange or black patches
figure 12 8

Figure 12.8

X chromosomes

Allele for

orange fur

Early embryo:

Allele for

black fur

Cell division and

X chromosome

inactivation

Two cell

populations

in adult cat:

Active X

Inactive

X

Active X

Black fur

Orange fur

slide4

Anhydrotic dysplasia X-linked sweat gland problem

  • X = normal sweat glands X' = absence of sweat glands.
    • XY….would be?
    • Normal male
    • X’Y…would be?
    • No sweat glands male
  • XX…..
  • Normal female
  • X'X' do not have sweat glands
  • XX' …..
  • Heterozygous females have patches of skin with sweat glands and patches of skin without sweat glands. So swaths or populations of cells that have one X turned on and other patches with a different X on.
slide5

What do you know about colorblindness?

Suppose: X = color vision

               X’ = colorblind

The retina of a heterozygous (XX’) female will have some cells with the X inactivated and other cells with the X’ inactivated.

A heterozygous carrier of red-green colorblindness has some colorblind cells in her retina.

The non-colorblind cells enable her to see color.

figure 12 10b

Figure 12.10b

F1 dihybrid testcross

bvg

b vg+

Homozygous

recessive

(black body,

vestigial wings)

Wild-type F1

dihybrid

(gray body,

normal wings)

bvg

bvg

b vg+

bvg

b vg+

bvg

bvg

bvg

bvg

bvg

Meiosis I

b vg+

Meiosis I and II

b vg

bvg

Recombinant

chromosomes

bvg

Meiosis II

b+ vg+

b+ vg

bvg

bvg+

bvg

Eggs

Sperm

figure 12 10c

Figure 12.10c

Recombinant

chromosomes

b vg+

b vg

bvg

bvg

Eggs

965

Wild type

(gray-normal)

944

Black-

vestigial

206

Gray-

vestigial

185

Black-

normal

Testcross

offspring

bvg

b vg

bvg

b vg

bvg

bvg

bvg

bvg

bvg

Sperm

Recombinant offspring

Parental-type offspring

Recombination

frequency

391 recombinants

 100  17%

2,300 total offspring

figure 12 12

Figure 12.12

Mutant phenotypes

Black

body

Brown

eyes

Short

aristae

Cinnabar

eyes

Vestigial

wings

0

48.5

57.5

67.0

104.5

Gray

body

Long aristae

(appendages

on head)

Red

eyes

Normal

wings

Red

eyes

Wild-type phenotypes

slide9

1. What kind of sex determination did our ancestors have and when did the y chrosome evolve?

2. What do they mean SRY evolved from a related gene??

3. The chapter talks about SRY, what does it stand for?

4. Why do you think the Y lost its ability to recombine (other than at the tips)??

5. Why would the Y lose genes? What kinds of genes would it be unlikely to lose and why?