students with blindness or low vision n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Students with Blindness or Low Vision PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Students with Blindness or Low Vision

Students with Blindness or Low Vision

1270 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Students with Blindness or Low Vision

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Students with Blindness or Low Vision Chapter 9

  2. What is the History of Blindness and Low Vision? • Examples that illustrate accomplishments from early times: Homer’s The Iliad and The Odyssey • 1800’s – Louis Braille developed a system for reading, writing, and music using raised dots which could be “read” with one’s fingers • Formal education for this population began in the U.S.; and the American Printing House for the Blind was established. • Early 1900’s saw emergence of public school programs. • Advocacy movements stressed integration into all facets of society. • 1990’s – Professionals developed a common core curriculum and a national agenda for students with blindness and low vision.

  3. What is the Legal Definition of Blindness and Low Vision? • Legal Blindness – vision of 20/200 or worse in the best eye, with the best possible correction OR field of vision limited to no more than 20 degrees (does not equate to total blindness) • Low vision – vision of 20/70 to 20/200 (also called partial sight) • Visual acuity – how sharp visual images are perceived • Visual field – the scope of what one can see without turning the head or moving one’s eyes

  4. What is the IDEA 04 Definition? • Visual impairments including blindness are defined as “vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.”

  5. What Else Should I Know About the Definitions of Blindness and Low Vision? • Legal definitions emphasize visual acuity and residual vision. • Teachers should be concerned with how well a student can use residual vision and the impact on educational performance. • Students with low vision may be able to use printed materials (for example, large print books). • Students with blindness may need to learn through means other than printed materials. • Individuals with the same visual acuity can function differently in the same classroom.

  6. What is the Prevalence of Blindness and Low Vision? • Only about .04% of the school age population have been identified with visual impairments. • 90% of all individuals with visual impairments have some functional vision.

  7. What are Some Causes of Blindness and Low Vision? • Optical defects • Refraction – focusing light as it passes through different components of the eye • Refractive errors are more common and include: • Astigmatism – focusing problems whether stimuli are near or far; usually present at birth; may cause headaches, nausea or tired eyes • Hyperopia – can see better at far distances than close up • Myopia – can see better at close range than at distances

  8. The Eye (Figure 9.1)

  9. What are Some Causes of Blindness and Low Vision? (continued on the next slide) • Ocular Motility Defects • Nystagmus – eyes move abruptly in continual jerky types of involuntary motion; may cause the student to tilt or turn his/her head to try to see better • Strabismus – any deviation in the alignment of the eyes as a result of muscle imbalance or neurological condition • Amblyopia – suppression of images which causes a blurred image in either or both eyes (“lazy eye”); can lead to permanent vision loss if untreated

  10. What are Some Causes of Blindness and Low Vision? (continued) • External eye problems can affect the orbit, eyelids and cornea • Growths, thinning, or inflammation of the cornea can lead to problems with vision, pain, and tearing of the cornea • Internal eye problems can include Retinopathy of Prematurity (a possible complication of premature birth • Cortical visual impairment – vision loss associated with brain damage

  11. What are some Possible Characteristics of Students with of Blindness or Low Vision?(continued on the next slide) • Intellectual Characteristics: The ability to see may have little or no effect on one’s general intelligence. • Play and Social Interaction Skills: These may be delayed. • Language and Concept Development: Language does not appear to be significantly affected for many students. Association of words with concepts and understanding concepts may be difficult without hands-on experiences.

  12. What are some Possible Characteristics of Students with of Blindness or Low Vision?(continued) • Academic Achievement: When considering achievement, assessment methods should be considered. Students with blindness or low vision can succeed in academics at the same rate as their peers. • Perceptual Abilities: Visual perception may be significantly affected and include orientation, mobility, and wayfinding • Psychological and Social Adjustment: These areas may be affected including social isolation and negative reactions from peers

  13. How is Blindness and Low Vision Identified in Infants and Toddlers? • Medical professionals may diagnose based on a child’s lack of visual fixation on parents’ faces or interesting objects, abnormal eye movement, family history, and visual acuity.

  14. How is Blindness and Low Vision Identified in School-Aged Students? • Snellen charts are used for screening. • Teacher reports of frequent behaviors (rubbing eyes, squinting, tilting head to look at books, holding objects close to eyes, etc.) that indicate problems seeing. • Comprehensive assessment – follows confirmation of a vision loss adversely affecting educational performance • Functional vision, learning media, cognitive ability, academic achievement, orientation and mobility skills, social skills and independent living skills

  15. What Should I Teach Students with Blindness or Low Vision? • Regular curriculum + expanded core curriculum to address their needs specific to their vision loss • Expanded core curriculum may include skills needed in the core curriculum at a greater depth than sighted peers or skills sighted peers would not need • Self-advocacy and self-determination skills

  16. What is the Expanded Core Curriculum? • Skills students with blindness or low vision may need • Compensatory skills • Visual efficiency skills • Literacy and Braille skills • Listening skills • Orientation and mobility skills • Social interaction skills • Independent living skills • Recreation and leisure skills • Career and transition skills

  17. How Should I Teach Students with Blindness and Low Vision? • In general, students with blindness and low vision should learn the same information as general education students although more time and accommodations might be needed. • Counseling to deal with reactions from others • Possible teaching of care for prosthetic eye • Adaptations for color or visual discrimination problems • Responding to traffic signals, etc. • Provide a copy of teacher’s notes • Read aloud • Supply audio tapes/CDs of print materials • Use hands-on models and manipulatives

  18. What are Considerations for the Instructional Environment? • Assist through touch and sound, more than sight, for those with little or no functional vision. • Use specialized equipment. • Provide equal access to the core curriculum. • Do not re-arrange the furniture or leave items in the path. • Determine the LRE based on student needs and strengths, preferences, and related services needs. • In general, provide appropriate lighting, tactile materials, necessary print size, and decrease visual clutter.

  19. What Types of Instructional Technology Can be Used? • Use programs to magnify computer screens. • Scan materials for access. • Provide Braille if the student uses it. • Always use captioned videos. • Use of a guide dog may be needed. • May scan in materials and use a synthesizer that reads the text to the student • Voice recognition software applications

  20. What are Some Considerations for the General Education Teacher? • Request large print materials in advance. • Get training on the use of optical devices and software. • Encourage student relationships and interaction. • Support emotional and learning needs. • Provide daily cues. • Consult with vision specialist regularly. • Use tactile materials. • Reduce glare on materials. • Speak in normal tones. • Tell the student when you are leaving the room. • Maintain high expectations and give regular feedback.