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Lecture III: SOCIAL TURMOIL IN THE 1920S:CIVIL WAR, “WAR COMMUNISM” and NEP In the framework of the course “ Crucial Issues of Russian Political History from the early XXth century up the present time ” Sergey Verigin, Ass. Prof. Petrozavodsk State University Contents list:
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In the framework of the course “Crucial Issues of Russian Political History from the early XXth century up the present time”
Sergey Verigin, Ass. Prof.
Petrozavodsk State University
Makhno is perhaps one of the most famous leaders of world anarchy movement.
Unlike many of his fellow anarchists he had a chance to try anarchist ideas in real life.
Makhno spent 7 years (1907-1917) in exile in Siberia.
Revolution of 1917 freed him and in 1918-21 he headed the peasant anarchy movement in Ukraine.
The amount of people in his "republic" reached up to 35 th people. Makhno tried to fight Germans, anti-revolutionary forces and Bolsheviks.
In 1920-21 his army suffered several defeats from the Red Army and Makhno had to flee abroad.
One of the leaders of the White
One of the leaders of the White movement
There are several reasons for "the whites'" defeat:
1) the movement wasn't unified, it included not only "the fighters for the national identity" but other people as well who came at random;
2) the movement was discredited by Cossack chieftains who allowed lawless in Siberia, Primorye, Zabaikalye, terrorising the population. For example, Cossack's chieftain Grigoryev was famous for his cruel massacres in the Ukraine.
3) "the white" couldn't win the support of the peasants, who during the war hesitated to choose between "the whites" and "the reds".
January 1919 - "prodrazvyorstka" began: the state confiscated the surplus food from the peasants (sometimes even the necessary food supply). Peasants resisted this policy. But then they began sending "prodotryadi"- armed groups of workers from the cities, which confiscated bread by the force of arms.