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NASA Earth Science Enterprise Overview. NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise. Ronald J. Birk Special Assistant to Associate Administrator version 2.0. Strategy Hierarchy. Research Strategy. Applications Strategy. Technology Strategy. www.earth.nasa.gov. NRC. IPCC. USGCRP. Global Change .

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Nasa earth science enterprise overview l.jpg
NASA Earth Science EnterpriseOverview

NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise

Ronald J. Birk

Special Assistant to Associate Administrator

version 2.0


Strategy hierarchy l.jpg
Strategy Hierarchy

Research Strategy

Applications Strategy

Technology Strategy

www.earth.nasa.gov


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NRC

IPCC

USGCRP

Global Change

Advanced

Weather

Prediction

National Hazards Center

SESWG

NRC Natural

Hazards Roundtable

Natural Hazards

Earth Science Enterprise

Earth

Science

Knowledge

Mission: Focus on weather, climate, & natural hazards

Science

Industry

Tribal

Applications

Local

State

Federal

Operational Imperatives

Technology & Missions

Transition

Validation &

Verification

Applications

Demonstration

Applications

Research


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Roadmap from Data to Decision Support - Knowing what crops to grow next summer

Autonomous, In-space

Calibration and Data Reduction

Interaction Between

Modeling/Forecasting

and Observation

Systems

Interactive

Dissemination

Petabytes

Multi-platform, multi-parameter, high spatial and temporal resolution, remote & in-situ sensing

Terabytes

Gigabytes

Megabytes

WET

VERY

DRY

DRY

WET

WET

DRY

DRY

VERY WET

Predictions

Access to Knowledge

Information

Synthesis

Advanced Sensors

Processing Webs

COLD

WARM

COLD


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NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Pioneers Scientific Observation of the Earth

Our Mission:

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and future generations


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Science Views Earth as a Dynamic System Observation of the Earth

Forces acting on the Earth system

Earth system response

IMPACTS

Feedback

Of the total forcing of the climate system, 40% is due to the direct effect of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and 60% is from feedback effects, such as increasing concentrations of water vapor as temperature rises.


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Science Observation of the EarthQuestions

  • How is the global Earth system changing?

  • What are the primary causes of change in the Earth system?

  • How does the Earth system respond to natural and human-induced changes?

  • What are the consequences of changes in the Earth system for human civilization?

  • How well can we predict future changes to the Earth system?


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Measurement Requirements for NASA Earth Science Research Strategy

Variability

Forcing

Response

Consequence

Prediction

Precipitation, evaporation & cycling of water changing?

Atmospheric constituents & solar radiation on climate?

Clouds & surface hydrological processes on climate?

Weather variation related to climate variation?

Weather forecasting improvement?

Global ocean circulation varying?

Changes in land cover & land use?

Ecosystem responses & affects on global carbon cycle?

Consequences in land cover & land use?

Transient climate variations?

Global ecosystems changing?

Surface transformation?

Changes in global ocean circulation?

Coastal region change?

Trends in long-term climate?

Stratospheric ozone changing?

Stratospheric trace constituent responses?

Future atmospheric chemical impacts?

Ice cover mass changing?

Sea level affected by climate change?

Future concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane?

Motions of Earth & interior processes?

Pollution effects?

Requires both systematic & exploratory satellites

Requires systematic satellite observations

Requires exploratory satellite observations

Requires pre-operational and/or systematic/expl

Use available/new observations in better models

12/20/00


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ESE Spaceborne Missions Strategy

Systematic Missions-Observation of Key Earth System Interactions

Terra

Landsat 7

Aqua

Aura

QuikSCAT

ICEsat

Jason-1

SeaWinds

Exploratory - Exploration of Specific Earth System Processes and Parameters and Demonstration of Technologies

GIFTS

SRTM

GRACE

Cloudsat

EO-1

Triana

CALIPSO


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Land, Oceans, Atmosphere Strategy

EOS Era

  • NPOESS Preparatory Project (2005/06)

  • Landsat Data Continuity Mission (2005)

  • Global Precipitation Mission (2007)

  • Ocean Topography Mission (2006)

  • Ocean Surface Winds (2006)

  • Total Column Ozone/Aerosols (2008)

  • Solar Irradiance (2006)

Terra, Aqua

Landsat 7

TRMM

TOPEX, Jason

QuikSCAT, SeaWinds

TOMS, OMI

ACRIMsat, SORCE


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Exploratory Measurement Needs Strategy

Soil moisture

Gravity field (GRACE)

Stratospheric aerosols (CALIPSO)

Land surface topography/deformation

Cloud particle properties (Cloudsat)

Snow cover/Freeze-thaw transition

Biomass changes (VCL)

Carbon sources & sinks

Ocean salinity

Sea ice thickness

Atmospheric properties in tropopause region

Ice sheet velocity fields

Tropospheric ozone & precursors

How are global precipitation, evaporation, and the cycling of water changing? (V1)

What are the motions of the Earth and Earth’s interior? (V6)

What trends in atmospheric constituents and solar radiation are driving global climate? (F1)

How is the Earth’s surface being transformed…? (F2)

What are the effects of clouds and surface hydrological processes on climate change? (R1)

How do ecosystems respond to and affect global environmental change and the global carbon cycle? (R2)

How can climate variations induce changes in global ocean circulation? (R3)

How do stratospheric trace constituents respond to change in climate and chemical composition? (R4)

How is global sea level affected by climate change? (R5)

What are the effects of regional pollution on the global atmosphere…? (R6)


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Remote Sensing Data Types Strategy

Thermal

Multispectral

Hyperspectral

Scatterometer

Lidar

Synthetic Aperture Radar


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Private Sector RS Systems Strategy

IKONOS

SPIN-2

SPOT 4

QuickBird

Orbview 3

EROS A1


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Airborne RS Systems Strategy

  • Positive Systems ADAR

  • ESSI Probe

  • WEI LaserMap

  • Daedalus TMS

  • ITRES CASI

  • TerraSystems DMSV

  • Intermap STAR-3i

  • EarthData Lidar

  • Emerge MSI

  • Eaglescan Lidar

  • Calgis GEOSAR

  • ERIM Air Lidar


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Technology Emphasis Areas Strategy

Earth System Science in the future will leverage three ongoing technology revolutions:

Geospatial

Computing

Communications

...To enable timely and affordable delivery of Earth Science data and information to users


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LIDAR Roadmap Strategy

Atmospheric Chemistry,

Clouds/Aerosols

Scanning H2O DIAL

LASER Altimetry

Direct CO2

Multi-kHz

microlaser

altimeter

~cm 3D res.

Doppler Winds

(Direct Detection)

UV DIAL

O3 & trace

gases

X2 lifetime

>efficiency

<mass, cost

3 J @ 355 nm

10 m ø telescope

50% eff det.

P-C

clouds & aerosols

H/V res.

250 m/30 m

0.1 - 0.5 m

hgt. res.

Increasing Capability

Doppler Winds

(Coherent Detection)

1 J @ 355

3 m ø telescope

35% eff. Det.

holographic

scanning

ICESAT

100mJ, 40Hz

.8 m optics

NPOESS

1 J, 12.5 Hz

.75 - 1 m

optics

VCL

<1m hgt. res.

300 mJ @ 355 nm

1 m ø telescope

25% eff. det.

500mJ, 10Hz

.5 m optics

2000

2007

2015

Time


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Reconfigurable Communications StrategyDistributed Information-System-in-the-Sky

Optical Crosslink

Optical

Crosslink

Ka Crosslink

Active

Optical

Ka

Ka

Ka

Passive

Optical

Comm Gateway

Data Mining/

Date Fusion Sites

Metadata

Warehouse

Commercial

Communication

Network

  • Interoperating Measurement Systems (Air / Spacecraft / In-situ)

  • Flexible Measurement Network Architecture

  • Direct Distribution of Derived Products

  • Network Computing- in-the-Sky

In-situ User

PC Based GS

Internal NASA Use Only


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Computational Climate Modeling Strategy

Fully intera

ctive (biol

ogy,

Computational Modeling in Two Stages;

Computational Modeling in Two Stages;

chemistry, physic

s)

ensemble sim

ulations in

Driving Evolution & Enabling Revolution

Driving Evolution & Enabling Revolution

an operati

onal mode

2020

°

°

.25

x .25

resolution;

2015

add cloud, che

mistry,

& radiat

ion effects

16

10

2010

°

°

.25

x .25

resolution;

15

hurricanes, storm front

s

10

2005

14

10

°

°

2

x 2

resolution;

Interact

ive

Nanotechnology

synoptic scale

s

physics, biology,

chemistry;

13

10

Revolutionary

Revolutionary

assimilat

ion of

satelli

te data

Data Size, Bytes

12

10

2001

Homogeneous

11

Cluster

Informati

on

10

Heterogeneous

Power Grid

Cluster

Evolutionary

Evolutionary

10

10

ExaFLOPS

TeraFLOPS

PetaFLOPS

GigaFLO

PS

9

10

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Compute Speed, FLOPS

Real Demonstrated Performance doin

g useful Science




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EOSDIS Strategy

Science Data

Flight Operations,

Distribution,

Data

Processing,

Data Acquisition

Data Capture,

Access,

Transport

Info Mgmt, Data

Initial Processing,

Interoperability,

to DAACs

Archive, & Distribution

Reuse

Backup Archive

Research

Users

Tracking

EOS

& Data

Spacecraft

Relay Satellite

(TDRS)

Distributed

Active

Archive

Centers

NASA

Integrated

Data

Processing

&

Mission

Control

Services

NASA

Internet

Network

(NISN)

Mission

Services

Education

Users

White Sands

Complex

(WSC)

Value-Added

Providers

Instrument

Teams

Int’l Partners

Interagency

EOS Polar Ground Stations

Centers

& Data

Data

Centers


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Earth System Modelling Strategy

Land

GTEC

BIOME-BGC

CENTURY

BIOME3

TEM

Oceans

ROMS

HOPE

OCCAM

POM

Atmosphere

MM5

AGCM

GISS

Hadley Center



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Science Goals Strategy

TODAY

Goals for 2010

5-Day forecast at >90%*

7-10 Day forecast at 75%*

3 day rainfall forecast routine

Hurricane landfall +/-100Km at 2-3 days

Air quality forecast at 2 days

6-12 month seasonal prediction routine;12-24 months experimental

10 year climate forecasts experimental; moderate to high confidence in forcing & response factors

Continuous monitoring of surface deformation in vulnerable regions with millimeter accuracy

Improved temporal dimension of earthquake & volcanic eruption forecasts

Improve post-eruption hazard assessment

3-Day forecast at 93%*

7 Day forecast at 62%*

3 day rainfall forecast not achievable

Hurricane landfall +/-400Km at 2-3 days

Air quality day by day

6-12 month seasonal prediction experimental; achieved an understanding of El Nino mechanics

Decadal climate prediction with coarse models and significant uncertainties in forcing and response factors

Demonstrate centimeter-level measurement of land deformation

Accurate characterization of long-term tectonic motions, but no short-term earthquake forecast capability

Accurate characterization of volcanic activity, but no long-term prediction accuracy

Weather

Climate

Natural Hazards

* Accuracy refers to sea level pressure forecasts over Northern Hemisphere during winter.


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Evolution of Earth Science at NASA Strategy

  • 1960s to 1980s: Exploring the Possibilities

    • Birth and early development of satellite remote sensing

    • Technology demonstration was the driver

  • 1990 to 2000: Surveying the Earth System

    • Birth and evolution of the Earth System Science concept

    • Focus on providing a broad suite of observations to observe, document and understand Earth system change

  • 2000 to 2020: Focus on National Needs

    • Answer high-priority science questions with profound national/international economic and policy relevance

    • End-to-end science, technology & applications approach

  • 2020 and Beyond:Enabling Ubiquitous Use of the View From Space

    • Information delivery from space to decision-makers’ desktops in a timely and affordable manner


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Applications Imperative Strategy

Putting (ESE) knowledge to work (NRC 2001):

Ensure an “intimate connection” to extend research and technologies being developed by the Enterprise through partnerships with Federal Agencies, Academia, and the Private Sector on operational activities to baseline solutions for decision support systems to serve the national interest

Weather Prediction

Aviation Safety

Intelligent Transportation Systems

Precision Agriculture


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ESE and Applications Missions Strategy

The NASA Earth Science Enterprise mission is to:

  • “Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and future generations.”

    The Enterprise Applications Program mission is to:

  • “Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.” (ESE, Strategic Plan 2001)


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Theme Areas Strategy

  • Resource Management

    Management of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources including:

    Agriculture, Forestry, Rangeland, Fisheries, Fossil Fuel, Extraction, Renewable Energy.

  • Disaster Management

    Natural hazards applied research and applications development, manmade disasters:

    Earthquakes, Volcanic Eruptions, Landslides, Wildfires, Floods, Severe Storms,

    Tsunamis, Coastal Change, and Land subsidence.

  • Community Growth and Infrastructure

    Transportation, Infrastructure and Utilities, Urban Planning, and Conservation/Preservation,

    and Human Impacts on land use.

  • Environmental Assessment

    Assessment of Air, Water, and Land environments, and Ecosystems, and the effect of

    natural and human-made changes on these environments.


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Program Prioritization Criteria Strategy

Priority Criteria

Socioeconomic Value

Application Feasibility

Mandated Program

Appropriate for NASA

Partnership Opportunity*

Science & Technology Readiness

Program Balance

Cost / Budget Context

* Includes potential for handoff to operational systems

Implementation Priority Criteria


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Socioeconomic Value Strategy

Weather & Energy

  • The annual cost of electricity could decrease by at least $1B if the accuracy of 30 hour weather forecasts improved 1 degree Fahrenheit.

    Earth Science & Aviation

  • The projected annual savings of operating aircraft using advanced Synthetic Vision Systems at just 10 airports in the U.S. in one year is over $2B.


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Vision for 2025 and Beyond Strategy

  • Enabling Ubiquitous Use of the View From Space

    • Information delivery from space to decision-makers’ desktops in a timely and affordable manner

Local

Governments

Federal Agencies

Universities

NASA

Centers

State

Governments

Scientists

International Partners


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Agreements Strategy

  • USDA Ag 20/20Precision Agriculture

  • FEMA Flood Map Modernization Program

  • USGS National Map Program

  • NOAACoastalLand Use & Land Cover Mapping

  • NIMA Homeland Security

  • DOT Intelligent Transportation Systems

  • FGDC National Spatial Data Infrastructure

  • USAID Vulnerability Assessments

  • CCAD Biological Corridor Analysis

  • NIH Early Warning forVector borne diseases


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Spatial Information Cycle Strategy

Prediction Models

NASA ESE

Private

Public

EOS,

ESSP

NMP

EOSDIS,

ESIP

24 Measurement Sets

Decision

Support

Systems

Tasking

Distribution

  • Evaluation

  • Verification

  • Validation

  • Demonstration

Data

Distribution/

Management

Data

Sources/

Measurements

Standards-

based

Products

Exploitation

Processing


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Program Outputs Strategy

Verification and Validation Reports

  • Benchmark approach and results of analysis

    Application Prototypes and Guidelines

  • Documented prototypes and guidelines (procedures) that can serve as benchmarks for potential operational implementation

    Assessment for Commercial Implementation

  • Analyses of limitations of solutions based on currently available technologies

    Guidance for Next Generation R&D

  • Recommendations for next generation investments in earth science and technology research and development


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Improving Efficiency of Agriculture Strategy

An applications research project with the University of Kansas has led to it’s spinning off a new business in crop yield forecasting

A partnership with USDA and four growers associations representing 100,000 US farmers is demonstrating new techniques for precision agriculture


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Managing Wildfires Strategy

The US Forest Service has established two direct broadcast receiving installations to acquire Terra satellite data, and enable daily, near real-time distribution and decision making on allocation of fire fighting assets.


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Informing Aviation Strategy

  • Digital Atmospheric Data

  • Digital Terrain Data


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RTCA Aviation Terrain Database Specs Strategy

AREA 1

The World

AREA 2

Terminal

AREA 3

Aerodrome

LE90

Horizontal

Accuracy

50 m

2.5 m

5 m

Data Integrity

Routine (10-3)

Essential (10-5)

Essential (10-5)

Vertical

Accuracy

30 m

1.0 m

3 m

Vertical

Resolution

1.0 m

0.1 m

0.1 m

Confidence

level

90%

90%

90%

Publication

Timeliness

As required

As required

As required

0.3 arc sec

(10m)

1.0 arc sec

(30m)

3.0 arc sec

(100m)

Post Spacing

Source SRTM IFSAR Lidar


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ESE Results for Aviation Roadmap Strategy

NASA

NOAA

Research

Operations

2002

2003

2005-2006

2008-2010

PAVE

GAP

SCIENCE

GIFTS DEMO

Meteorology

NAST-I

(ER-2)

AIRES (AQUA)

CrIS (NPP)

TECHNOLOGY

GIFTS

GOES-R (5)

Applications Research

Validation & Verification

Applications Demonstration

Aviation

Weather

Information

FAA Integrated Product Development Team

APPLICATIONS

Prod. Dev.

Phase - 2

Prod. Dev

Phase - 3

Prod. Dev. Phase - 1


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Application Scenarios Strategy

  • Weather and Aviation

  • Weather, Climate and Agriculture/Forestry

  • Weather, Climate, Natural Hazards and Community Disaster Preparedness

  • Weather, Climate and Human Health

  • Weather, Climate and Energy

  • Weather, Hazards and Homeland Security


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Partnerships Strategy

  • Public Sector

  • Academic Sector

  • Research Sector

  • Private Sector

  • Centers of Excellence


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Public Sector Partners Strategy

USGS



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NASA Centers Strategy

+

Goddard Space

Flight Center

+

NASA Langley Research Center

+


Slide45 l.jpg

Regional Earth Science Applications Centers Strategy

Larry/programs/resacs/resacs_map_w_text.ppt



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Private Sector StrategyPartnerships


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Summary Strategy

  • ESE focuses on extending the use of Earth science and remote sensing technologies through applications for nationally important areas of decision support.

  • ESE provides systems engineering and verification and validation within a framework of the elements of data sources, data products, data distribution, and decision support systems associated with geospatial information.

  • ESE works in partnerships with information community.

  • Our challenge and opportunity is to identify, and realize the potential for, earth science and remote sensing technology solutions to contribute spatial information products to serve decision support system objectives that are in the national interest.


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Applications Strategy

Advanced Products & Technology Development

Community Growth and Infrastructure

Transportation, Infrastructure and Utilities, Urban Planning, and Conservation / Preservation, and Human Impacts on land use.

Resource Management

Management of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources including: Agriculture, Forestry, Rangeland, Fisheries, Fossil Fuel, Extraction, Renewable Energy

Disaster Management

Natural hazards applied research and applications development, manmade disasters:

Earthquakes, Volcanic Eruptions, Landslides, Wildfires, Floods, Severe Storms, Tsunamis, Coastal Change, and Land subsidence.

Environmental Assessment

Assessment of Air, Water, and Land environments, and Ecosystems, and the effect of natural and human-made changes on these environments.

Exploratory

Multi-Theme

Land use/Land cover; Weather & Climate


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Thank you Strategy