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IAP Workshop. Think twice: Economic benefits of sustainable factories. Tarek Aguizy, Kevin Chen, Stephanie Dalquist, Carsten Finkeldey Christof Irle, Gerald Rothenhöfer, Christoffer Seubert, Kushan Surana. Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories. Agenda. Problem definition

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    1. IAP Workshop Think twice: Economic benefits of sustainable factories Tarek Aguizy, Kevin Chen, Stephanie Dalquist, Carsten Finkeldey Christof Irle, Gerald Rothenhöfer, Christoffer Seubert, Kushan Surana

    2. Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Agenda • Problem definition • Trend analysis • Technology directions • Focus on „3-D printing“ • Summary

    3. A sustainable factory is prepared for the future Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Our view of a sustainable factory Business dimension • A sustainable factory ... • ... is flexible • ... withstands competition • ... has the necessary resources (machines, humans, nature) • ... meets quality, cost and time requirements • ... operates within laws • ... is profitable Technological dimension

    4. Flexibility Automation Time Organisation Environmentaltrends - electronic produc- tion control systems - new tools (modular robots) - shorter develop- ment times - shorter order times - shorter production times - flexible workers - skilled workers - industry collabora- tion - mass customization - solitary manu- facturing - modular cars - Fuel efficiency - emissions - energy costs - recycling - legal rules and restrictions How to manufacture cars more flexibly in less time at lower costs ? Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Trend analysis Environment Car industry / car factory

    5. Flexible Tooling Tooling that can change specifications or enables ultra-rapid changeover E.g. magnetic field induced polymorphic dies Interchangeable robot hands Multi-functional tools Aggregated assemblies Plastic or composite-based molding technology for complex modules E.g. Injection molded composite cars Fewer, more complex parts Fewer plant segments Lower weight Speed/cost Recycling benefit Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Solutions

    6. Distributed assembly Smaller localized assembly plants that source from a larger network of module suppliers E.g. factories in surging markets with high tariffs (E.g. Argentina, Egypt) Lower labor costs Representation in countries forming new markets Assembly quicker and closer to customer Self-aware machinery Integrated heuristic diagnostics, control, and maintenance E.g. automation of Process Control Systems found in MB supervisory centre Shorter reaction time during breakdowns Transparent factory Quality control Maintenance-type supervision WIP-Inventory control Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Solutions

    7. Outsourcing Increased use of suppliers, move towards concentration of design and innovation core E.g. split enterprise Decreased cost (Perceived) quality External assembly External manufacture of non-critical parts Decreased environmental standards Knowledge Organization Improved Information flow leading to efficient use of expertise E.g. corporate database of expertise Worker input Informational redundancy Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Solutions

    8. Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories 3-D Printing Today • Current technology • precise to 0.005 inches • only small parts can be made, no larger than a few inches • starches, polymers, metals all can be used • slow • Current applications • rapid prototyping • rapid tooling • toys, novelties

    9. Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories How is 3-D printing sustainable? • Increases flexibility in development and production • Reduces development time and cost • Environmentally friendly, as scrap material is reduced • Need innovation for sustainable production • Not evolutionary, but revolutionary

    10. Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Effect on Pre-Production • Production process starts directly from electronic model • Less effort to design parts of low complexity, reduction of development time and cost • Design cost for tooling eliminated • Link between order and production • Possibility to combine CAX and ERP • Integration of customer order, product data and production planning

    11. Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Impact on Production • Freedom of complexity • component assemblies reduced to single parts • reduces cost of joining processes, changes in tooling • fewer factory segments, stimulates formation of production cells • Production sequence flexibility • possible to produce small body frame directly after producing a large frame using a single machine • more responsive to changes in demand • Possible variation in materials • Physical Particle Deposition currently used to form alloys during the printing process • possible to make one part that contains several different alloys

    12. Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Issues to Overcome • Rate of production • Scale of parts produced • More usable materials must be developed • Management must accept major structural / logistical change in production

    13. Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Summary • Need for automobile manufacturing facilities to be sustainable in the face of upcoming trends • Study focused on 3-D printing, a new and innovative method to manufacture cars more flexibly with high automation, in less time and lower cost • 3-D research increases production speed, material diversity and cost effectiveness • Other promising solutions need further investigation

    14. Think twice: economic benefits of sustainable factories Acknowledgments • MIT Germany Program • DaimlerChrysler • Siemens • Dr. Karsten Loehr