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    Slide 1:1. Sick Bacchus 1593, oil on canvas, 26 x 20-1/2, Galleria Borghese, Rome Painted when Caravaggio was about 22 years old, this is likely a self-portrait of the artist, because this is the same face that appears in authenticated portraits of the artist done later in his life. Caravaggio often used mirrors to paint portraits because he was too poor to hire models. In this painting, the subject is Bacchus, the god of wine, but Caravaggio portrayed him with colors that are more sickly than god-like. Caravaggio painted a realistic portrait of a man, but he used green and bluish tones that suggest illness. As a young man, Caravaggio did fall ill of a mysterious fever and spent nearly six months recuperating at the hospital of Santa Maria della Consolazione. Perhaps he referenced his illness in this painting. Caravaggios skill in realistically depicting fruit was acquired during his early service in the studio of Cavalier dArpino. There, he was assigned the task of adding both flowers and fruit to the studios paintings and his attention to accurate detail resulted in very realistic images. His talent and ability in accurately depicting flowers and fruits as well as a variety of human expressions would soon make Caravaggio famous. What parts of this painting look most realistic? Actually, everything is this painting is rendered in an accurate, realistic manner. 1. Sick Bacchus 1593, oil on canvas, 26 x 20-1/2, Galleria Borghese, Rome Painted when Caravaggio was about 22 years old, this is likely a self-portrait of the artist, because this is the same face that appears in authenticated portraits of the artist done later in his life. Caravaggio often used mirrors to paint portraits because he was too poor to hire models. In this painting, the subject is Bacchus, the god of wine, but Caravaggio portrayed him with colors that are more sickly than god-like. Caravaggio painted a realistic portrait of a man, but he used green and bluish tones that suggest illness. As a young man, Caravaggio did fall ill of a mysterious fever and spent nearly six months recuperating at the hospital of Santa Maria della Consolazione. Perhaps he referenced his illness in this painting. Caravaggios skill in realistically depicting fruit was acquired during his early service in the studio of Cavalier dArpino. There, he was assigned the task of adding both flowers and fruit to the studios paintings and his attention to accurate detail resulted in very realistic images. His talent and ability in accurately depicting flowers and fruits as well as a variety of human expressions would soon make Caravaggio famous. What parts of this painting look most realistic? Actually, everything is this painting is rendered in an accurate, realistic manner.

    Slide 2:2. Boy with Basket of Fruit 1593-94, oil on canvas, 27-1/2 x 26-3/8, Galleria Borghese, Rome Caravaggios early works portrayed single figures and still life elements against a plain dark background. The basic lighting system that Caravaggio would use throughout his career is evident here. The source of light in this painting is from the left which focuses our attention on the right side of the boys upper body, the drapery on his right arm and on the realistically-rendered basket of fruit. Light shining diagonally out of the darkness became a hallmark of Caravaggios style. By placing his subject against a dark and blank ground of shallow space, lit with a strong light, Caravaggio showcased his ability to render 3-dimensional forms through the use of contrast of highlight and shadow. This contrast technique is called chiaroscuro (clear light and obscure, dark values) and it gave Caravaggios paintings a sense of realism. Notice the boys neck and how the skin color ranges from a very light tint on his right to a much darker shade on his left. This value contrast makes the neck appear rounded and realistic, even though the picture is really a flat, two-dimensional plane. Caravaggio placed the boy with the basket directly in the foreground, where he commands the viewers attention. The still life contained in the basket seems to project out of the painting and into the viewers space beyond the frame in an optical effect called, foreshortening. Foreshortened objects appear to thrust directly at the viewer as well as recede sharply into the picture plane, and they also appear shallower than other objects in the painting). Note how Caravaggio has also contrasted two themesfully-ripe, juicy fruit and withering leavesall within the one basket. What direction does the light come from in this painting? The light comes from the upper left foreground.2. Boy with Basket of Fruit 1593-94, oil on canvas, 27-1/2 x 26-3/8, Galleria Borghese, Rome Caravaggios early works portrayed single figures and still life elements against a plain dark background. The basic lighting system that Caravaggio would use throughout his career is evident here. The source of light in this painting is from the left which focuses our attention on the right side of the boys upper body, the drapery on his right arm and on the realistically-rendered basket of fruit. Light shining diagonally out of the darkness became a hallmark of Caravaggios style. By placing his subject against a dark and blank ground of shallow space, lit with a strong light, Caravaggio showcased his ability to render 3-dimensional forms through the use of contrast of highlight and shadow. This contrast technique is called chiaroscuro (clear light and obscure, dark values) and it gave Caravaggios paintings a sense of realism. Notice the boys neck and how the skin color ranges from a very light tint on his right to a much darker shade on his left. This value contrast makes the neck appear rounded and realistic, even though the picture is really a flat, two-dimensional plane. Caravaggio placed the boy with the basket directly in the foreground, where he commands the viewers attention. The still life contained in the basket seems to project out of the painting and into the viewers space beyond the frame in an optical effect called, foreshortening. Foreshortened objects appear to thrust directly at the viewer as well as recede sharply into the picture plane, and they also appear shallower than other objects in the painting). Note how Caravaggio has also contrasted two themesfully-ripe, juicy fruit and withering leavesall within the one basket. What direction does the light come from in this painting? The light comes from the upper left foreground.

    Slide 3:3. Boy Bitten by a Lizard 1596-7, oil on canvas, 27-1/2 x 22-3/8, National Gallery, London In this scene, Caravaggio focused on the portrayal of human emotions. Surprised by the bite of a lizard hiding among the fruit and flowers, the boy jerks his hand away in a sudden and painfully real instant. Caravaggios painting has captured and frozen this action in a fraction of a second, almost as if in a snapshot. Dramatic lighting, again from the viewers left, casts shadows on the right side of the boys body and also effectively hide the lizard among the shadows and darker values. This nasty reptilian surprise lurking among the fruit might serve as a metaphor of lifes sometimes unpleasant and unexpected surprises. The lizards bite might also be associated with disillusionments or disappointments that everyone encounters while growing up. Caravaggios use of chiaroscuro (contrasts of highlight and dark values) draws attention to both the boys right shoulder and to his face that is frozen in an expression of sudden, unexpected pain. His brow frowns and his mouth opens in a gasp of shock. These expressions painted by Caravaggio were new subjects of human emotion and sudden reaction that had not been portrayed before by other artists. Notice that Caravaggio even depicted the boys fingernails very realisticallytheres dirt under all of them! Fun Fact: The reflection in the vase shown in the shadowy right foreground is of the window in Caravaggios studio which served as a principal source of daylight for his early paintings. What has just happened in this scene to cause such a sudden reaction? The boys hand has just been bitten by a lizard hiding among the fruits and flowers.3. Boy Bitten by a Lizard 1596-7, oil on canvas, 27-1/2 x 22-3/8, National Gallery, London In this scene, Caravaggio focused on the portrayal of human emotions. Surprised by the bite of a lizard hiding among the fruit and flowers, the boy jerks his hand away in a sudden and painfully real instant. Caravaggios painting has captured and frozen this action in a fraction of a second, almost as if in a snapshot. Dramatic lighting, again from the viewers left, casts shadows on the right side of the boys body and also effectively hide the lizard among the shadows and darker values. This nasty reptilian surprise lurking among the fruit might serve as a metaphor of lifes sometimes unpleasant and unexpected surprises. The lizards bite might also be associated with disillusionments or disappointments that everyone encounters while growing up. Caravaggios use of chiaroscuro (contrasts of highlight and dark values) draws attention to both the boys right shoulder and to his face that is frozen in an expression of sudden, unexpected pain. His brow frowns and his mouth opens in a gasp of shock. These expressions painted by Caravaggio were new subjects of human emotion and sudden reaction that had not been portrayed before by other artists. Notice that Caravaggio even depicted the boys fingernails very realisticallytheres dirt under all of them! Fun Fact: The reflection in the vase shown in the shadowy right foreground is of the window in Caravaggios studio which served as a principal source of daylight for his early paintings. What has just happened in this scene to cause such a sudden reaction? The boys hand has just been bitten by a lizard hiding among the fruits and flowers.

    Slide 4:4. The Cardsharps 1594-5, oil on canvas, 39 x 54, Kimball Art Museum, Ft. Worth, Texas With this painting, Caravaggio began a series of multi-figured compositions that focused the viewers attention on both the depth and realism of his scenes and subjects. Caravaggio created genre scenes depicting the typical activities of ordinary folk, with their figures dressed in contemporary clothing or sometimes in classical garb, and all focused on the common, everyday themes of daily life. Here, two card cheaters are working together to cheat a nave, young man. The man with the gloved hand is secretly signaling to his partner which cards the youth is holding in his hand. Meanwhile, the opponent is carefully reaching for one of several extra cards he has stashed away in his belt). The figures are set against a shallow, plain background lit by natural light from the left foreground. Although Caravaggio has caught a frozen the moment in time, the curved gestural lines of the young mens arms and the diagonal lines of the boy leaning forward also manage to give this painting a sense of movement that is in-progress. Caravaggio also effectively directs visual movement from one figure to the other by implied lines created by gazes and pointing fingers. Note the realistic depiction of the glove near the center of this painting: it is old, dirty, and has a ripped hole in one of the fingers as well as the thumb. What kinds of lines are used to create a sense of movement in-progress? Curved gestural lines and diagonal lines both give this painting a sense of movement in-progress. 4. The Cardsharps 1594-5, oil on canvas, 39 x 54, Kimball Art Museum, Ft. Worth, Texas With this painting, Caravaggio began a series of multi-figured compositions that focused the viewers attention on both the depth and realism of his scenes and subjects. Caravaggio created genre scenes depicting the typical activities of ordinary folk, with their figures dressed in contemporary clothing or sometimes in classical garb, and all focused on the common, everyday themes of daily life. Here, two card cheaters are working together to cheat a nave, young man. The man with the gloved hand is secretly signaling to his partner which cards the youth is holding in his hand. Meanwhile, the opponent is carefully reaching for one of several extra cards he has stashed away in his belt). The figures are set against a shallow, plain background lit by natural light from the left foreground. Although Caravaggio has caught a frozen the moment in time, the curved gestural lines of the young mens arms and the diagonal lines of the boy leaning forward also manage to give this painting a sense of movement that is in-progress. Caravaggio also effectively directs visual movement from one figure to the other by implied lines created by gazes and pointing fingers. Note the realistic depiction of the glove near the center of this painting: it is old, dirty, and has a ripped hole in one of the fingers as well as the thumb. What kinds of lines are used to create a sense of movement in-progress? Curved gestural lines and diagonal lines both give this painting a sense of movement in-progress.

    Slide 5:7. Bacchus 1595-7, oil on canvas, 37-3/8 x 33-1/2, Uffizi Gallery, Florence In this painting, Caravaggio represented Bacchus not as a god, but as a common person dressed as Bacchus. He preferred his subjects to look realistic, therefore he painted from live models. (The model used for this Bacchus is the same boy who was depicted in both the Boy Bitten by a Lizard and The Lute Player). Realistic details are evident, such as the boys sunburned face and hands, as well as with his dirty fingernails. The still life portion of the painting is realistically painted, complete with wilting leaves and over-ripe, decaying fruit. Details, such as the tiny air bubbles that ring the surface of the wine in the carafe, all give the viewer the impression that the wine glass was filled just a moment ago. The brightest values in the painting are used for Bacchus skin, and they contrast with the earth tones of his leafy crown and with the still-life objects. As usual, Caravaggios background is dark and plain and light comes from the upper left foreground. It is this light that creates the shadows in the right side of the painting while it illuminates the left side and reflects off the lower right side of the wine carafe. Caravaggio stopped all action at the point where Bacchus offers the viewer a glass of wine. The line of his foreshortened outstretched arm thrusts directly out of the painting toward us as the sleeve drapery recedes toward the shallow background. Caravaggio draws us into the painting and visually moves us up the gestural line of the outstretched arm to Bacchus face, then down the curved line of his other arm to the fruit. The basket contains fruit in various stages of ripeness and rot, perhaps alluding to the passage of time and adding a sense of urgency to enjoy each moment in life. Fun Fact: In the reflection on the left side of the carafe, Caravaggio painted a small male head in front of an easel. It is obviously a self-portrait. Where is the source of light in this painting? The light comes from the upper left foreground.7. Bacchus 1595-7, oil on canvas, 37-3/8 x 33-1/2, Uffizi Gallery, Florence In this painting, Caravaggio represented Bacchus not as a god, but as a common person dressed as Bacchus. He preferred his subjects to look realistic, therefore he painted from live models. (The model used for this Bacchus is the same boy who was depicted in both the Boy Bitten by a Lizard and The Lute Player). Realistic details are evident, such as the boys sunburned face and hands, as well as with his dirty fingernails. The still life portion of the painting is realistically painted, complete with wilting leaves and over-ripe, decaying fruit. Details, such as the tiny air bubbles that ring the surface of the wine in the carafe, all give the viewer the impression that the wine glass was filled just a moment ago. The brightest values in the painting are used for Bacchus skin, and they contrast with the earth tones of his leafy crown and with the still-life objects. As usual, Caravaggios background is dark and plain and light comes from the upper left foreground. It is this light that creates the shadows in the right side of the painting while it illuminates the left side and reflects off the lower right side of the wine carafe. Caravaggio stopped all action at the point where Bacchus offers the viewer a glass of wine. The line of his foreshortened outstretched arm thrusts directly out of the painting toward us as the sleeve drapery recedes toward the shallow background. Caravaggio draws us into the painting and visually moves us up the gestural line of the outstretched arm to Bacchus face, then down the curved line of his other arm to the fruit. The basket contains fruit in various stages of ripeness and rot, perhaps alluding to the passage of time and adding a sense of urgency to enjoy each moment in life. Fun Fact: In the reflection on the left side of the carafe, Caravaggio painted a small male head in front of an easel. It is obviously a self-portrait. Where is the source of light in this painting? The light comes from the upper left foreground.

    Slide 6:8. The Fortune Teller 1598-9, oil on canvas, 39 x 52-3/8, Muse du Louvre, Paris The model for the fortune teller was a gypsy that Caravaggio stopped on the street and asked to pose in the act of predicting the future. The gypsy, strokes the hand of the young man and stares into his eyes, distracting him even as she manages to steal his ring. The deceit is very subtle and symbolizes human folly. Visual movement is directed along implied lines of the clothing. The light values of the fortune tellers white blouse contrast with the dark cloth of her dress, creating an implied diagonal line that our eye follows down to the subject of the paintingthe fortune being read [and also stolen] from the young mans hand. Similarly, the contrast of the light values on the young mans clothing emphasize a vertical implied line that leads to his face. The diagonal line of their exchanged gaze also mimics the line of the shadow that is cast on the wall behind them. Fun Fact: This painting, along with the image of Caravaggio, is featured on an old 100,000 lire banknote. Describe the visual movement through this work. Diagonal lines of clothing, glances from one subject to the other, and the gestures between them all direct the viewers eye to move throughout the scene. 8. The Fortune Teller 1598-9, oil on canvas, 39 x 52-3/8, Muse du Louvre, Paris The model for the fortune teller was a gypsy that Caravaggio stopped on the street and asked to pose in the act of predicting the future. The gypsy, strokes the hand of the young man and stares into his eyes, distracting him even as she manages to steal his ring. The deceit is very subtle and symbolizes human folly. Visual movement is directed along implied lines of the clothing. The light values of the fortune tellers white blouse contrast with the dark cloth of her dress, creating an implied diagonal line that our eye follows down to the subject of the paintingthe fortune being read [and also stolen] from the young mans hand. Similarly, the contrast of the light values on the young mans clothing emphasize a vertical implied line that leads to his face. The diagonal line of their exchanged gaze also mimics the line of the shadow that is cast on the wall behind them. Fun Fact: This painting, along with the image of Caravaggio, is featured on an old 100,000 lire banknote. Describe the visual movement through this work. Diagonal lines of clothing, glances from one subject to the other, and the gestures between them all direct the viewers eye to move throughout the scene.

    Slide 7:Caravaggios Mature Period From 1597 onward, Caravaggio turned almost exclusively to painting religious subjects. He also introduced violent gestures and physical movement in order to intensify the emotionalism of the scene and its spiritual event. In the foreground, radically foreshortened figures often projected out from the picture plane, compelling the viewer to become a participant in the scene. From 1600 until his death, most of Caravaggios works exhibited the following characteristics: Dramatic light in a darkened setting, causing sharp contrasts of light and dark that heightened the drama and increased the feeling of three-dimensionality. The light source was often out of view on the left. Insistence on realism when depicting characters. The characters reacted to situations in realistic ways and suffered real emotions, even if they were saints. None were idealized. The scenes were suspended moments in time. Caravaggio painted a brief instant in time, before the action continued, in order to show the emotions in the characters faces and their actions. The settings were minimal with just a few details to convey the scene. The space was usually shallow and the figures were positioned in the foreground, often seeming to emerge out into the viewers space through the mechanics of foreshortening. Compositions were based on intertwining diagonal lines.Caravaggios Mature Period From 1597 onward, Caravaggio turned almost exclusively to painting religious subjects. He also introduced violent gestures and physical movement in order to intensify the emotionalism of the scene and its spiritual event. In the foreground, radically foreshortened figures often projected out from the picture plane, compelling the viewer to become a participant in the scene. From 1600 until his death, most of Caravaggios works exhibited the following characteristics: Dramatic light in a darkened setting, causing sharp contrasts of light and dark that heightened the drama and increased the feeling of three-dimensionality. The light source was often out of view on the left. Insistence on realism when depicting characters. The characters reacted to situations in realistic ways and suffered real emotions, even if they were saints. None were idealized. The scenes were suspended moments in time. Caravaggio painted a brief instant in time, before the action continued, in order to show the emotions in the characters faces and their actions. The settings were minimal with just a few details to convey the scene. The space was usually shallow and the figures were positioned in the foreground, often seeming to emerge out into the viewers space through the mechanics of foreshortening. Compositions were based on intertwining diagonal lines.

    Slide 8:9. The Calling of St. Matthew 1599-1600, oil on canvas, 10 7-1/2 x 11 2, Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome This was Caravaggios first work commissioned for a public place and it was innovative because it was the first Roman chapel wall painting done in oils instead of as a fresco. The scene is of Levi (St. Matthews name before he became an apostle), seated at a table, with the days tax proceeds. The group of his assistants is lit this time from the upper right. Jesus (with a halo) enters with St. Peter, surprising the group. Dazzled by the light and surprised by the intrusion, Levi draws back and gestures with his hand to himself saying Who, me? The action is suspended in the very moment before they all react. The two sides of the painting contrast in both pose and costume. On the left is Levi and his subordinates wearing contemporary clothing while Jesus and St. Peter appear in timeless cloaks. The two groups are separated by a void that is bridged literally and symbolically by Jesus hand. This hand, like Gods hand to Adam in Michelangelos Creation (which Caravaggio had seen in Rome), unifies the two halves of the painting. There are two main light sources: one from above illuminates St. Matthew and the group; the other one, from the right, illuminates Jesus and St. Peter. Note how this light casts no shadow on the youth that faces St. Peter, implying that it is not natural light, but rather divine light. The lighter values on the left half of the painting embody the material world, while on the right, more somber light represents the spiritual realm. A strong contrast of light and dark appears as a shaft of light from the upper right that leads diagonally to Matthews face, creating a wedge shape on the back wall as well as an implied line from Jesus to Matthew. This further connects the two sides of the painting. This example of dramatic use of light, directly slanted at a subject, redefined the nature of religious painting. Caravaggios scenes were of real human dramas, not mystical scenes. Critics believed Caravaggios approach was far too radical, to the point of blasphemy. Which lines draw your eye to St. Matthew? Jesus hand, the strong shaft of diagonal bright light, and St. Matthews own self-pointing hand all draw the eye toward St. Matthews face.9. The Calling of St. Matthew 1599-1600, oil on canvas, 10 7-1/2 x 11 2, Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome This was Caravaggios first work commissioned for a public place and it was innovative because it was the first Roman chapel wall painting done in oils instead of as a fresco. The scene is of Levi (St. Matthews name before he became an apostle), seated at a table, with the days tax proceeds. The group of his assistants is lit this time from the upper right. Jesus (with a halo) enters with St. Peter, surprising the group. Dazzled by the light and surprised by the intrusion, Levi draws back and gestures with his hand to himself saying Who, me? The action is suspended in the very moment before they all react. The two sides of the painting contrast in both pose and costume. On the left is Levi and his subordinates wearing contemporary clothing while Jesus and St. Peter appear in timeless cloaks. The two groups are separated by a void that is bridged literally and symbolically by Jesus hand. This hand, like Gods hand to Adam in Michelangelos Creation (which Caravaggio had seen in Rome), unifies the two halves of the painting. There are two main light sources: one from above illuminates St. Matthew and the group; the other one, from the right, illuminates Jesus and St. Peter. Note how this light casts no shadow on the youth that faces St. Peter, implying that it is not natural light, but rather divine light. The lighter values on the left half of the painting embody the material world, while on the right, more somber light represents the spiritual realm. A strong contrast of light and dark appears as a shaft of light from the upper right that leads diagonally to Matthews face, creating a wedge shape on the back wall as well as an implied line from Jesus to Matthew. This further connects the two sides of the painting. This example of dramatic use of light, directly slanted at a subject, redefined the nature of religious painting. Caravaggios scenes were of real human dramas, not mystical scenes. Critics believed Caravaggios approach was far too radical, to the point of blasphemy. Which lines draw your eye to St. Matthew? Jesus hand, the strong shaft of diagonal bright light, and St. Matthews own self-pointing hand all draw the eye toward St. Matthews face.

    Slide 9:10. The Martyrdom of St. Matthew 1599-1600, oil on canvas, 10 7-1/2 x 11 3, Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome As the companion piece to the previous image, The Calling of St. Matthew, this painting depicts the moment before St. Matthews death. Caravaggio used several devices that unify both paintings. Both canvases are about the same size; alll the figures are of the same scale; here, the figure of St. Matthew has aged into an old man While the light source comes from the right in The Calling of St. Matthew and it comes from the left in this painting, when hung together, the light source of both paintings somehow appears to emanate from above the central chapel altar. The scene here is full of action and it contains several groupings of figures, each showing real terror as an assassin bursts into the church to stab St. Matthew, who falls down the steps. This type of brutal violence as subject was unprecedented, as was Caravaggios technique of painting it directly onto the canvas. Another innovation was his depiction of a religious subject as a genre scene (a scene of everyday life), with the figures in a natural setting and wearing contemporary clothing. Other artists might have inserted contemporary figures into ancient scenes, but these were usually as portraits of patrons. Here, Caravaggio has inserted himself into the painting (he is seen just above the central figures right shoulder, gazing sideways). Caravaggio froze the action just prior to St. Matthews assassination. Figures flee the scene as a bright light freezes their confusion and expressions of horror. The dark background contrasts sharply with the bright values used to illuminate the central assassin and St. Matthew. This strong chiaroscuro [light and dark, obscure values] gives the figures a realistic sense of three-dimensional form. Strong and dramatic gestures also create movement through implied lines that take ones eye through the composition and action. The movement of the figures themselves is frozen in twisting, realistic poses reflecting a Baroque style of dramatic emotion. Where is the strongest value contrast? The strongest value contrasts highlight the striking assassin and the fallen St. Matthew against the darker elements of the background scene.10. The Martyrdom of St. Matthew 1599-1600, oil on canvas, 10 7-1/2 x 11 3, Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome As the companion piece to the previous image, The Calling of St. Matthew, this painting depicts the moment before St. Matthews death. Caravaggio used several devices that unify both paintings. Both canvases are about the same size; alll the figures are of the same scale; here, the figure of St. Matthew has aged into an old man While the light source comes from the right in The Calling of St. Matthew and it comes from the left in this painting, when hung together, the light source of both paintings somehow appears to emanate from above the central chapel altar. The scene here is full of action and it contains several groupings of figures, each showing real terror as an assassin bursts into the church to stab St. Matthew, who falls down the steps. This type of brutal violence as subject was unprecedented, as was Caravaggios technique of painting it directly onto the canvas. Another innovation was his depiction of a religious subject as a genre scene (a scene of everyday life), with the figures in a natural setting and wearing contemporary clothing. Other artists might have inserted contemporary figures into ancient scenes, but these were usually as portraits of patrons. Here, Caravaggio has inserted himself into the painting (he is seen just above the central figures right shoulder, gazing sideways). Caravaggio froze the action just prior to St. Matthews assassination. Figures flee the scene as a bright light freezes their confusion and expressions of horror. The dark background contrasts sharply with the bright values used to illuminate the central assassin and St. Matthew. This strong chiaroscuro [light and dark, obscure values] gives the figures a realistic sense of three-dimensional form. Strong and dramatic gestures also create movement through implied lines that take ones eye through the composition and action. The movement of the figures themselves is frozen in twisting, realistic poses reflecting a Baroque style of dramatic emotion. Where is the strongest value contrast? The strongest value contrasts highlight the striking assassin and the fallen St. Matthew against the darker elements of the background scene.

    Slide 10:11. The Conversion of St. Paul 1600-1, oil on canvas, 7 6-1/2 x 5 10, Cerasi Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome In this painting, Caravaggio again portrayed an instants reaction. He paints the foreshortened figure of Saul (who becomes Paul the Apostle), lying prostrate on the ground, jutting out toward the viewer, blinded by Divine light from above. Saul has no halo and looks like he might have fallen from his horse when the brightness of Gods Light shone down on him. All the action is cramped into the foreground. Sauls foreshortened figure is a large diagonal implied line that protrudes outward toward the viewer while his legs and body recede into the dark background. The huge horse fills the top half of the composition and visually bears down on the viewer even as the divine light bears down on Saul. The gesture of St. Pauls upraised arms reinforces this concept and creates implied diagonal lines that visually move the eye toward the upper half of the painting. The visual movement through the painting begins with Saul in the foreground and travels up his left arm to the horses hind leg. The eye then moves up the horses leg over his back and back down the line of his neck and nose to Sauls other raised arm. This diagonal gestural line takes us back to Sauls face, where the movement begins. The contrast of lightest values on Pauls arms, face and body, as well as on the horse, emphasize these areas of the painting against the darker values of the plain, shallow background. This high contrast heightens the drama of the scene. The man holding the horse has witnessed Pauls experience even as he soothes the frightened horse. Both appear to be ordinary men, with realistic reactions to Pauls individual and transcendental experience. Fun Fact: This painting is hung to the left of a companion piece entitled, The Crucifixion of St. Peter, and, like the companion paintings of St. Matthew, it appears that a single central altar light source once again illuminates both of these Peter and Paul paintings, too. How does your eye move through this painting? The view first sees Pauls face, then his raised left arm moves the eye to the horse before the eye then moves to Sauls right arm and back to his face.11. The Conversion of St. Paul 1600-1, oil on canvas, 7 6-1/2 x 5 10, Cerasi Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome In this painting, Caravaggio again portrayed an instants reaction. He paints the foreshortened figure of Saul (who becomes Paul the Apostle), lying prostrate on the ground, jutting out toward the viewer, blinded by Divine light from above. Saul has no halo and looks like he might have fallen from his horse when the brightness of Gods Light shone down on him. All the action is cramped into the foreground. Sauls foreshortened figure is a large diagonal implied line that protrudes outward toward the viewer while his legs and body recede into the dark background. The huge horse fills the top half of the composition and visually bears down on the viewer even as the divine light bears down on Saul. The gesture of St. Pauls upraised arms reinforces this concept and creates implied diagonal lines that visually move the eye toward the upper half of the painting. The visual movement through the painting begins with Saul in the foreground and travels up his left arm to the horses hind leg. The eye then moves up the horses leg over his back and back down the line of his neck and nose to Sauls other raised arm. This diagonal gestural line takes us back to Sauls face, where the movement begins. The contrast of lightest values on Pauls arms, face and body, as well as on the horse, emphasize these areas of the painting against the darker values of the plain, shallow background. This high contrast heightens the drama of the scene. The man holding the horse has witnessed Pauls experience even as he soothes the frightened horse. Both appear to be ordinary men, with realistic reactions to Pauls individual and transcendental experience. Fun Fact: This painting is hung to the left of a companion piece entitled, The Crucifixion of St. Peter, and, like the companion paintings of St. Matthew, it appears that a single central altar light source once again illuminates both of these Peter and Paul paintings, too. How does your eye move through this painting? The view first sees Pauls face, then his raised left arm moves the eye to the horse before the eye then moves to Sauls right arm and back to his face.

    Slide 11:13. Basket of Fruit ca. 1600-1, oil on canvas, 18-1/8 x 25-3/8, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan Rather than being an element in a larger composition, this is Caravaggios only known still-life painting. The low horizon causes the basket to loom up against the bright yellow background. Notice that Caravaggio reversed the values that he traditionally used for the foreground and background. The light source still comes from the upper left foreground, but he painted the fruit in darker values that contrast with the lighter values of the yellow background. The fruit basket projects toward the viewer as it sits precariously on an imaginary ledge that is literally the bottom of the canvas. The composition is very realistic with its withered, shriveled, insect-eaten leaves and its blemished and bruised apples, pears, and grapes. The contrast between some pieces of fresher, healthy fruit with other rotten, decaying pieces perhaps might symbolize the cycle of life and death. Fun Fact: This has been called the first still life of the 17th century and the image been printed on the reverse side of an older version of the Italian 100,000 lire banknote. 13. Basket of Fruit ca. 1600-1, oil on canvas, 18-1/8 x 25-3/8, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan Rather than being an element in a larger composition, this is Caravaggios only known still-life painting. The low horizon causes the basket to loom up against the bright yellow background. Notice that Caravaggio reversed the values that he traditionally used for the foreground and background. The light source still comes from the upper left foreground, but he painted the fruit in darker values that contrast with the lighter values of the yellow background. The fruit basket projects toward the viewer as it sits precariously on an imaginary ledge that is literally the bottom of the canvas. The composition is very realistic with its withered, shriveled, insect-eaten leaves and its blemished and bruised apples, pears, and grapes. The contrast between some pieces of fresher, healthy fruit with other rotten, decaying pieces perhaps might symbolize the cycle of life and death. Fun Fact: This has been called the first still life of the 17th century and the image been printed on the reverse side of an older version of the Italian 100,000 lire banknote.

    Slide 12:14. Supper at Emmaus c. 1600-1, oil on canvas, 54-3/4 x 76-3/4, National Gallery, London The story depicted in this painting involves two disciples of Jesus, Cleophas and Simon Peter, who met a stranger on the road while traveling [Luke 24: 13 31]. They joined him at an inn for dinner, where he revealed to them that he was Jesus, resurrected from the dead. Caravaggio depicts the instant in the time when both men realize and react to the news and immediately before Jesus disappears. At the rear on the left stands the innkeeper, still unaware that anything unusual has happened. The composition is characteristic of Caravaggios style, with its dark, shallow setting and with figures illuminated by a light that comes from off the canvas to the left. Contrasts of light and dark values (chiaroscuro) model the figures and make the scene appear deeper and more realistic. Realistic details also include a cropped chair and the basket that perched precariously on the edge of the table (this is the same basket shown in the painting, Basket of Fruit). The jutting elbow of the Cleophas on the left and lunging open hands of the Simon Peter on the right (as each reacts to the scene with sudden, true human emotions), are both compositional features that show how one man leans forward, dumbstruck and gripping his chair, while the other flings out his arms in utter astonishment. Both disciples are depicted as foreshortened figures and both lead the viewers eye straight into the painting. Each figure creates an implied diagonal line that leads directly to Jesus who sits at the center of the composition. The action is crammed into the foreground and toward the viewer, who feels like he/she is standing directly behind Cleophas, the disciple on the left. Visual movement begins with his gaze in an implied line toward Jesus that also follows Jesus outstretched arm to his illuminated face. The brightest values are concentrated on Jesus and the light throws a shadow on the wall behind Him in the shape of a halo. Jesus himself is portrayed realistically, as a young, beardless man. The shadows around him, however, are unnatural. (Despite his realism, Caravaggio often chose to manipulate the light in his paintings to suit his needs). Jesus face contrasts with the dark shadow behind him while drawing attention to the fact that He casts his own shadow on the wall, implying that He is a source of Divine Light. The viewer visually follows Jesus gaze downward and to the right toward Simon Peters extended right arm and then across his body to the foreshortened left arm that leads out of the painting. The visual movement could also begin in the reverse direction beginning with Simon Peters outstretched left arm. Where are the brightest values? They are used in the center to depict the figure of Jesus.14. Supper at Emmaus c. 1600-1, oil on canvas, 54-3/4 x 76-3/4, National Gallery, London The story depicted in this painting involves two disciples of Jesus, Cleophas and Simon Peter, who met a stranger on the road while traveling [Luke 24: 13 31]. They joined him at an inn for dinner, where he revealed to them that he was Jesus, resurrected from the dead. Caravaggio depicts the instant in the time when both men realize and react to the news and immediately before Jesus disappears. At the rear on the left stands the innkeeper, still unaware that anything unusual has happened. The composition is characteristic of Caravaggios style, with its dark, shallow setting and with figures illuminated by a light that comes from off the canvas to the left. Contrasts of light and dark values (chiaroscuro) model the figures and make the scene appear deeper and more realistic. Realistic details also include a cropped chair and the basket that perched precariously on the edge of the table (this is the same basket shown in the painting, Basket of Fruit). The jutting elbow of the Cleophas on the left and lunging open hands of the Simon Peter on the right (as each reacts to the scene with sudden, true human emotions), are both compositional features that show how one man leans forward, dumbstruck and gripping his chair, while the other flings out his arms in utter astonishment. Both disciples are depicted as foreshortened figures and both lead the viewers eye straight into the painting. Each figure creates an implied diagonal line that leads directly to Jesus who sits at the center of the composition. The action is crammed into the foreground and toward the viewer, who feels like he/she is standing directly behind Cleophas, the disciple on the left. Visual movement begins with his gaze in an implied line toward Jesus that also follows Jesus outstretched arm to his illuminated face. The brightest values are concentrated on Jesus and the light throws a shadow on the wall behind Him in the shape of a halo. Jesus himself is portrayed realistically, as a young, beardless man. The shadows around him, however, are unnatural. (Despite his realism, Caravaggio often chose to manipulate the light in his paintings to suit his needs). Jesus face contrasts with the dark shadow behind him while drawing attention to the fact that He casts his own shadow on the wall, implying that He is a source of Divine Light. The viewer visually follows Jesus gaze downward and to the right toward Simon Peters extended right arm and then across his body to the foreshortened left arm that leads out of the painting. The visual movement could also begin in the reverse direction beginning with Simon Peters outstretched left arm. Where are the brightest values? They are used in the center to depict the figure of Jesus.

    Slide 13:15. The Entombment (The Deposition of Christ) 1604, oil on canvas, 9 10 x 6 6, Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome This was one of Caravaggios most popular paintings and one of the few that did not generate controversy. The scene shows Jesus being carried to his tomb. The figures are placed in an arc that descends toward Jesus body with an implied compositional line that falls from the raised left hand of the woman at the back, down to the tip of Jesus shroud, lying on the stone slab in the foreground. This falling movement also gives the viewer a sense of Jesus dead weight straining those holding His body (both physically and emotionally), and that forces Nicodemus to bend over and labor as he grasps Jesus knees. Adding to the realism is the unidealized forms of Jesus body and of Nicodemus rugged face, legs, wrinkles, bare feet, and his contemporary working clothes. The viewer also experiences the others personal reactions to the event: St. John supports Jesus chest, Mother Mary extends her hand over Jesus head in sorrowful blessing, Mary Magdalene bows her head in grief, and Mary Cleophas extends her arms towards the divine light in both acceptance and sorrow. Light shines fullest on Jesus body and it contrasts with the darker values of the other figures who are portrayed in the shadowed background. Caravaggio used white clothing and skin tones to create the effect of a spotlight on areas of importance. In addition to creating drama in this scene, the strong contrasts of light and dark (chiaroscuro) model the figures and make them look more realistic. This realism was one of Caravaggios trademarks and it was also an innovation during this early Baroque period. Are the figures in the painting realistic-looking or idealized? They are all very realistic-looking.15. The Entombment (The Deposition of Christ) 1604, oil on canvas, 9 10 x 6 6, Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome This was one of Caravaggios most popular paintings and one of the few that did not generate controversy. The scene shows Jesus being carried to his tomb. The figures are placed in an arc that descends toward Jesus body with an implied compositional line that falls from the raised left hand of the woman at the back, down to the tip of Jesus shroud, lying on the stone slab in the foreground. This falling movement also gives the viewer a sense of Jesus dead weight straining those holding His body (both physically and emotionally), and that forces Nicodemus to bend over and labor as he grasps Jesus knees. Adding to the realism is the unidealized forms of Jesus body and of Nicodemus rugged face, legs, wrinkles, bare feet, and his contemporary working clothes. The viewer also experiences the others personal reactions to the event: St. John supports Jesus chest, Mother Mary extends her hand over Jesus head in sorrowful blessing, Mary Magdalene bows her head in grief, and Mary Cleophas extends her arms towards the divine light in both acceptance and sorrow. Light shines fullest on Jesus body and it contrasts with the darker values of the other figures who are portrayed in the shadowed background. Caravaggio used white clothing and skin tones to create the effect of a spotlight on areas of importance. In addition to creating drama in this scene, the strong contrasts of light and dark (chiaroscuro) model the figures and make them look more realistic. This realism was one of Caravaggios trademarks and it was also an innovation during this early Baroque period. Are the figures in the painting realistic-looking or idealized? They are all very realistic-looking.