bioterrorism and food safety gregory evans phd mph japhi annual conference october 28 2004 l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Bioterrorism and Food Safety Gregory Evans, PhD, MPH JAPHI ANNUAL CONFERENCE October 28, 2004 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Bioterrorism and Food Safety Gregory Evans, PhD, MPH JAPHI ANNUAL CONFERENCE October 28, 2004

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

Bioterrorism and Food Safety Gregory Evans, PhD, MPH JAPHI ANNUAL CONFERENCE October 28, 2004 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Bioterrorism and Food Safety Gregory Evans, PhD, MPH JAPHI ANNUAL CONFERENCE October 28, 2004. Subway riders injured in Aum Shinrikyo Sarin gas attack, Tokyo, March 20, 1995. (AP Photo/Chikumo Chiaki ) . Anthrax Spores.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Bioterrorism and Food Safety Gregory Evans, PhD, MPH JAPHI ANNUAL CONFERENCE October 28, 2004' - victoria

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Subway riders injured in Aum Shinrikyo Sarin gas attack,

Tokyo, March 20, 1995. (AP Photo/Chikumo Chiaki )


“in the Soviets’ view, the best biological agents were those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

Ken Alibek

the quranic concept of war
The Quranic Concept of War

Terror struck into the hearts of the enemies is not only a means, it is the end in itself. Once a condition of terror into the opponent’s heart is obtained hardly anything is left to be achieved. It is the point where the means and the end meet and merge. Terror is not a means of imposing decision upon the enemy; it is the decision we wish to impose upon him.


Courtesy of the US Department of State


Courtesy of the US Department of State


Courtesy of The Federal Bureau of Investigation


Advantages to

Biological Agent Use

most likely agents14
Most Likely Agents
  • Category 1 = Anthrax Smallpox
  • Category 2 = Plague Tularemia
  • Category 3 = Botulism ToxinViral Hemorrhagic Fever

Likely Bioterrorism Agents

  • Category B
    • c. burnetti (Q Fever)
    • brucella spp. (Brucellosis)
    • burkholderia mallei (Glanders)
    • burkholderiapseudomallei (Melsosdosis)
    • alphaviruses (Viral Encephalitis)
    • rickettsia prowazekii (Typhus)
    • Toxins (Ricin)
    • Staph Enterotoxin B
    • chlamydia psittaci (Psittacosis)
    • Other Foodborne agents
    • Other Waterborne agents

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Critical Biological Agents for Public Health Preparedness, 1999


Outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae Type 2

  • Dallas, Texas – A large Medical Center
  • 29 Oct – 1 Nov 96 – 12 Laboratory workers experienced severe gastrointestinal illness
  • All had eaten pastries left in their breakroom between the night and morning shifts on October 29th 1996

Shigella dysenteriae Type 2

  • Rare organism
  • Also known as Schmitz bacillus
  • Does not produce Shiga toxin
  • Much less severe infection than Type 1
  • Initial symptoms – Nausea, abdominal discomfort, and bloating. Followed approximately 24hrs later by diarrhea
  • Infection confirmed with positive stool culture for S dysenteriae

Lessons from Dallas

Outbreak of S dysenteriae Type 2

  • Covert contamination of food items is one of the most uncomplicated forms of bioterrorism
  • Better lab security is needed
    • Control access to laboratory stock cultures
    • Lock storage freezers
    • Maintain documentation of every individual gaining access
other foodborne bioterrorism incidents
Other Foodborne“Bioterrorism” Incidents
  • 1960s – Several Japanese outbreaks of typhoid and dysentery traced to research biologist intentionally contaminating food items
  • 1970 – 4 Canadian students were ill after consuming food contaminated with embryonated Ascaris suum ova, a large ringworm infecting pigs.
  • 1984 – In Oregon, more than 750 people became ill after being exposed to Salmonella from contaminated salad bars.
salad bar contamination
Salad Bar Contamination
  • September 1984, The Dalles, Oregon
  • 10 salad bars contaminated with Salmonella bacteria
  • More than 750 people became sick
  • Officials slow to identify the outbreak as deliberate
  • “We really lost our innocence over this. We weren't suspicious enough." Michael Skeels of the Oregon State Public Health Laboratory in Portland.
food supply vulnerability
Food Supply Vulnerability
  • January 2003, Michigan
  • Four families (18 people) experienced acute illness
    • Burning of the mouth, nausea, vomiting, dizziness
  • Recall of 1,700 pounds of beef
  • 148 more illnesses reported following recall
  • Four hospitalized, no fatalities
  • February 12, 2003, supermarket employee indicted
  • Poisoned 200 pounds of meat with “Black Leaf 40” insecticide, primary ingredient is nicotine
failing to report
Failing to Report
  • Saturday, in March 1997
  • Sun Harbor Airport, Phoenix, Arizona
  • 737 arrives from Acapulco, 50+ on board w/diarrhea
  • Plane offloads 25 passengers to ambulances
    • 6 patients admitted to local hospital
  • County Health Officer learned of the event listening to the radio (NPR) the following Monday
  • Public Health had no names and no stool samples
  • The aircraft was cleaned, reloaded and continued to Detroit the same day
steps in food safety and security
Steps in Food Safety and Security
  • Identify the hazards
  • Assess the risk
  • Analyze risk control measures
  • Make control decisions
  • Implement risk controls
  • Supervise and review
identify the hazards
Identify the Hazards
  • Conduct review of each activity in food production process
  • Concentrate on where people have access to the process
  • Food can be contaminated with biological and chemical agents at all points in process
assess the risk
Assess the Risk
  • Risk level severity can go from catastrophic to negligible
  • Risk level probability can go from frequent to unlikely
examples of hazards
Examples of Hazards
  • Trucks not secured
  • Little security in hiring personnel
  • Water to clean products could be contaminated
  • Facilities not secured
risk control measures
Risk Control Measures
  • Put up security cameras
  • Put guard on doors
  • Provide warning devices on doors
  • Lock doors and use panic bars to open
  • Put new hires under close supervision for first 90 days
  • Do background checks on employees
make risk control decisions
Make Risk Control Decisions
  • Determine which risks are the most severe
  • Determine which risk are the most probable
implement risk control decisions
Implement Risk Control Decisions
  • Put control measures in budget
  • Train personnel on new procedures
  • Develop incentives for employees and management to implement control measures
supervise and review
Supervise and Review
  • Monitor effectiveness of controls
  • Provide frequent feedback to employees and management