Heartwater
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Heartwater. Overview. Cause Economic impact Distribution Transmission Disease in animals Prevention and control . The Cause. Heartwater. Ehrlichia ruminantium Rickettsia Found in blood vessels of infected animals Especially ruminant brain Causes “leaking”

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Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Cause

  • Economic impact

  • Distribution

  • Transmission

  • Disease in animals

  • Prevention and control

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006



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Heartwater

  • Ehrlichia ruminantium

    • Rickettsia

    • Found in blood vessels of infected animals

      • Especially ruminant brain

      • Causes “leaking”

    • Cannot live very long outside host

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006



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History

  • 1830: South Africa – sheep

  • 1898: Spread through blood

  • 1900: Tropical bont tick vector

  • 1925: Caused by Rickettsial agent

  • 1980: Found in Western Hemisphere

  • 1992 and 1997: Florida-imported vector ticks

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Economic Impact

  • Zimbabwe

    • US $5.6 million annual losses

    • Acaricide, milk loss, treatment cost

  • Serious threat to the United States

    • Caribbean Islands with infected ticks

    • Migratory cattle egrets

    • Susceptible cattle and deer population

  • 40% to 100% death in U.S. expected

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006



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Geographic Distribution

  • Sub-Saharan Africa

  • The Caribbean Islands

    • Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, Barbados, St. Vincent, Antigua, Marie, Galante

  • Not reported in Asia

  • U.S. has ticks that spread heartwater

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Sickness/Death

  • Susceptible cattle, sheep, goats

  • Sickness: Approaches 100%

  • Death rate:

    • 80% in Merino sheep and Angora goats

    • 60% in cattle

    • 6% in Persian or Afrikander sheep

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Transmission

Spread of the rickettsia


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Animal Transmission

  • Vector-borne

  • Amblyomma ticks

    • Live 1-4 years

    • Each year on a different host

      • Develop to next stage

      • Egg- larvae – nymph - adult

      • 3 host tick

    • Once larvae, nymph infected,spread to next life stage

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Animal Transmission

  • Oral

    • Via colostrum- cow to calf

  • Vector spread - ticks

    • Wild ruminant reservoir

      • Blesbok

      • Wildebeest

    • Wild bird reservoir

      • Cattle egret

      • Helmeted guinea fowl

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006



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Affected Species

  • Severe disease

    • Cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo

    • White-tailed deer (experimentally)

  • Mild disease

    • Indigenous African breeds of sheep and goats

  • Inapparent disease

    • Blesbok, wildebeest, eland, springbok

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Clinical Signs

  • Time period from exposure to signs of disease: 14 to 28 days

  • Four forms of disease

    • Peracute- rare

    • Acute- most common

    • Subacute- rare

    • Mild or subclinical- calves

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Clinical Signs: Acute

  • Most common form

  • Sudden fever (107oF)

  • Loss of appetite, depression, rapid breathing, respiratory distress

  • Nervous signs

    • Chewing movements, eyelid twitching, tongue protrusion, circling, high stepping gait, “moonstruck”

  • Death in 1 week

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Clinical Signs: Subclinical

  • “Heartwater fever”

  • Asymptomatic

  • Fluctuating fever

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Clinical Signs: Other Forms

  • Peracute- rare

    • Heavily pregnant cows

    • Sudden death

    • Fever, severe respiratory distress, convulsions, ± severe diarrhea

  • Subacute- rare

    • Prolonged fever, coughing, fluid in lungs, mild incoordination

    • Recovery or death in 1-2 weeks

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Actions to Take

Contact your veterinarian

Stop all animal movement

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Heartwater in Humans

  • Humans are not susceptible to heartwater disease

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Prevention and Control


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Prevention

  • Tick control program

    • Acaricides

    • Regular inspection of animals, pastures

  • Eradication of the tropical bont tick from the Caribbean

    • Program since 1995

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Control

  • Importation control and monitoring

    • Quarantine all wild ruminants imported from Africa, all wild ungulates, birds, and reptiles imported to US

    • Inspect for ticks

  • Universally effective vaccine not developed

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Control

  • Treatment

  • Early stage

    • Oxytetracycline

  • Late stage

    • Treatment worthless when neurological signs appear

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006



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Internet Resources

  • Center for Food Security and Public Health website

    • www.cfsph.iastate.edu

  • World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) website

    • www.oie.int

  • USAHA Foreign Animal Diseases – “The Gray Book”

    • www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/gray_book

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Acknowledgments

Development of this presentationwas funded by a grant from the USDA Risk Management Agencyto the Center for Food Securityand Public Healthat Iowa State University.

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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Acknowledgments

Author:

Co-authors:

Reviewer:

Babsola Olugasa, DVM, MS

Anna Rovid Spickler, DVM, PhD

Radford Davis, DVM, MPH, DACVPM

Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH

Bindy Comito Sornsin, BA

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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