Energy Transformations

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# Energy Transformations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Energy Transformations. Georgia High School Graduation Test: Science Review Mrs. Kirby. Introduction. From the key vocabulary, circle the words that you can already define or use in a sentence. Write down two or three things that you think are important for you to know today.

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### Energy Transformations

Science Review

Mrs. Kirby

Introduction
• From the key vocabulary, circle the words that you can already define or use in a sentence.
• Write down two or three things that you think are important for you to know today.
Sample Question
• Describe the process of radioactive decay in which the unstable nucleus of a radioactive isotope spontaneously decays.
• the spontaneous process that occurs when an unstable nucleus releases particles and/or energy to form a more stable nucleus
• examples:
• carbon-14
• deuterium (hydrogen with 1 neutron)
• all elements with atomic numbers above 83
• radioactive decay = the release of subatomic particles by radioactive isotopes
• alpha and beta decay result in transformed atom
• gamma decay results in same atom with release of energy

ALPHA DECAY

BETA DECAY

GAMMA DECAY

Sample Question
• Calculate the amount of radioactive substance that will remain after one half-life.
Half-life
• the time it takes for half of the radioactive particles in a radioactive nucleus to decay
• example:
• If an original sample of carbon-14 has a mass of 10 grams and its half-life is 5700 years, how many grams of carbon-14 would remain after one half-life?
Sample Question
• What is the effect of an increase in temperature on the motion of atoms?
Temperature
• a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules
• the higher the temperature, the faster the molecules
Sample Question
• Compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of shape, volume, and movement of particles.
Sample Question
• What is the effect of temperature change on the phases of matter?
Phase Changes
• to increase the temperature of a substance energy must be absorbed by that substance
• to decrease the temperature of a substance energy must be released by that substance
Sample Question
• Give examples and describe the two forms of energy encountered in a system between any of the following: chemical, heat, light, electrical, and mechanical.
Types of Energy
• potential energy = stored energy due to position or chemical composition
• kinetic energy = energy due to motion
Heat Energy
• Heat can be transferred through:
• Conduction = when objects touch
• Convection = when matter moves
• Radiation = in the form of waves (does not require matter)
• Conductors = easily transmit energy
• Example: metals
• Insulators = do not easily transmit energy
• Example: gases such as air
Conversion of Energy
• The sum of KE and PE is constant if there is no friction.
• Realistically, some energy is transferred to heat due to the friction between the wheels and the track.
Discussion
• The molecular theory of molecules states that the velocity of molecules correlates to the temperature of the system. How are the actions of a group of people affected by the temperature of a room? How are those actions similar to and different from atoms at the same temperature?
Lesson Summarized
• Write a sentence that explains the system discussed.
• Draw a graphic organizer that shows the relationship of the parts to the whole.