Chapter 4 Prenatal Development and Birth. Germinal: The First 14 Days Implantation occurs about a week after conception, the burrowing of the organism into the lining of the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected during growth.
Some drugs that may post particular problems include- Alcohol; - Amphetamines; - Antibiotics such as Streptomycin, Terramycin and Tetracycline; - Some anticonvulsants such as Dilantin for epilepsy; - Barbiturates, - Hallucinogens such as LSD and marijuana; - Tranquilizers such as Valium; - Narcotics; sex hormones such as those contained in birth control pills and drugs to prevent miscarriages; tobacco; and vitamins (A and D in excessive doses). These are known to cause congenital malformation and complications at birth. In addition, radiation and environmental chemical pollutants such as mercury and lead discharged into the air may have adverse effects on an unborn child.
c. Infantile Autism
d. Depression Specific Teratogens
Born Too Soon- Breathing problems Babies born before 32 weeks, and especially those weighing under 1,500g (3lb 5oz), usually have immature lungs which cannot secrete surfactant, a foamy substance that prevents the inner surfaces of the lungs from sticking together. This frequently results in severe breathing difficulties, a condition known as Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS). After 32 weeks, RDS is far less common.- Premature babies can be very prone to infection because their immune systems are not fully developed.- Premature babies may also suffer from jaundice because their livers are immature; they may be treated with phototherapy lamps, similar to ultraviolet light sun beds.
Why is SGA a concern? When the fetus does not receive enough oxygen or nutrients during pregnancy, overall body and organs growth is limited, and tissue and organ cells may not grow as large or as numerous. Some of the conditions that cause SGA and IUGR restrict blood flow through the placenta. This can cause the fetus to receive less oxygen than normal, increasing the risks for the baby during pregnancy, delivery, and afterwards.
- painful contractions with a certain regularity
- effacement and/or dilatation of the cervix
- leakage of amniotic fluid
- bloody discharge
THE THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR
The Beginning of Bonding