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12 量子物理. Sections. Photon and Matter Waves Compton Effect Light as a Probability Wave Electrons and Matter Waves Schrodinger ’ s Equation Waves on Strings and Matter Waves Trapping an Electron Three Electron Traps The Hydrogen Atom. 12-1 Photon and Matter Waves ( 光子和物質波 ).

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Presentation Transcript
  • Photon and Matter Waves
  • Compton Effect
  • Light as a Probability Wave
  • Electrons and Matter Waves
  • Schrodinger’s Equation
  • Waves on Strings and Matter Waves
  • Trapping an Electron
  • Three Electron Traps
  • The Hydrogen Atom
the experiment
The experiment
  • First Experiment (adjusting V)–

the stopping potential Vstop

  • Second Experiment (adjusting f)–

the cutoff frequency f0



frequency shift
Frequency shift

Compton wavelength

the single photon version first by taylor in 1909
The Single-Photon VersionFirst by Taylor in 1909

The single-photon, double-slit experiment is a phenomenon which is impossible, absolutely impossible to explain in any classical way, and which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics - Richard Feynman

the postulate
The postulate
  • Light is generated in the source as photons
  • Light is absorbed in the detector as photons
  • Light travels between source and detector as a probability wave
12 4 electrons and matter waves
12-4Electrons and Matter Waves
  • The de Broglie wave length
  • Experimental verification in 1927
  • Iodine molecule beam in 1994
experimental verifications
Experimental Verifications

Electron beam


12 5 schrodinger s equation
12-5Schrodinger’s Equation
  • Matter waves and the wave function
  • The probability (per unit time) is 

Complex conjugate


駐波與量子化 Quantization

Confinement of a Wave leads to Quantization – discrete states and discrete energies


the energy levels
The Energy Levels 能階
  • The ground state and excited states
  • The Zero-Point Energy

n can’t be 0

correspondence principle
Correspondence principle(對應原理)
  • Normalization (歸一化)

At large enough quantum numbers, the predictions of quantum mechanics merge smoothly with those of classical physics

barrier tunneling
Barrier Tunneling穿隧效應
  • Transmission coefficient
STM 掃描式穿隧顯微鏡


of quartz

12 8 three electron traps
12-8Three Electron Traps
  • Nanocrystallites硒化鎘奈米晶粒
  • 那種顏色的顆粒比較小
a quantum dot an artificial atom
A Quantum Dot An Artificial Atom

The number of electrons can be controlled

the bohr model of the hydrogen atom
The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom

Fig. 39-16

Balmer’s empirical (based only on observation) formula on absorption/emission of visible light for H

  • Bohr’s assumptions to explain Balmer formula
  • Electron orbits nucleus
  • The magnitude of the electron’s angular momentum L is quantized


orbital radius is quantized in the bohr model
Orbital Radius is Quantized in the Bohr Model

Coulomb force attracting electron toward nucleus

Quantize angular momentum l :

Substitute v into force equation:

Where the smallest possible orbital radius (n=1) is called the Bohr radius a:


orbital energy is quantized
Orbital Energy is Quantized

The total mechanical energy of the electron in H is:

Solving the F=ma equation for mv2 and substituting into the energy equation above:

Substituting the quantized form for r:


energy changes
Energy Changes

Substituting f=c/l and using the energies En allowed for H:

Where the Rydberg constant

This is precisely the formula Balmer used to model experimental emission and absorption measurements in hydrogen! However, the premise that the electron orbits the nucleus is incorrect! Must treat electron as matter wave.


quantum numbers for the hydrogen atom
Quantum Numbers for the Hydrogen Atom

For ground state, since n=1→ l=0 and ml=0

wave function of the hydrogen atom s ground state
Wave Function of the Hydrogen Atom’s Ground State

Fig. 39-20

Fig. 39-21

Probability of finding electron within a within a small distance from a given radius

Probability of finding electron within a small volume at a given position


hydrogen atom states with n 1
Hydrogen Atom States with n>>1

Fig. 39-25

As the principal quantum number increases, electronic states appear more like classical orbits.