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Selection and Placement. Selection Process of choosing individuals with qualifications needed to fill jobs Organizations need qualified employees to succeed Placement Fitting a person to the right job. Applicant Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities. Person-Job Fit

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Selection and Placement

  • Selection

    • Process of choosing individuals with qualifications needed to fill jobs

    • Organizations need qualified employees to succeed

  • Placement

    • Fitting a person to the right job

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Applicant Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

  • Person-Job Fit

    • Matching knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) of individuals to characteristics of jobs (tasks, duties and responsibilities–TDRs).

    • Benefits of good person-job fit:

      • Higher employee performance

      • Lower turnover and absenteeism

KSAs = TDRs = Job Success

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Applicant Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

  • Person-Organization Fit

    • Congruence between individuals and organizational culture.

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Criteria, Predictors, and Job Performance

  • Selection Criterion

    • A characteristic that a person must have to do a job successfully

  • Predictors

    • Measurable or visible indicators of a selection criterion

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Criteria, Predictors, and Job Performance

  • Validity

    • Criterion-related validity: Correlation between a predictor and job performance; accuracy

    • Content validity: Selection method reflects job content

  • Reliability

    • Extent to which a predictor repeatedly produces the same results, over time; consistency

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Job Performance, Selection Criteria, and Predictions

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Combining Predictors

  • Multiple Hurdles

    • Establishing minimum cutoff (level of performance) for each predictor, requiring each applicant to score at least the minimum on each predictor to be considered for hiring.

  • Compensatory Approach

    • Scores on all predictors are added together, allowing higher score on one predictor to compensate for lower score on another.

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  • Receiving applications

  • Interviewing applicants

  • Administering tests to applicants

  • Conducting background investigations

  • Arranging physical examinations

  • Placing and assigning new employees

  • Coordinating follow-up of new employees

  • Exit interviewing departing employees

  • Maintaining employee records and reports

HR EmploymentFunctions

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Reality or Sugar-Coating?

  • Realistic Job Preview

    • Process through which job applicant receives an accurate picture of the organizational realities of the job.

      • Prevents the development of unrealistic job expectations that cause disenchantment, dissatisfaction, and turnover in new employees.

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Large volume of applicants

Quality of hires needsto be increased

When To Use Electronic Screening

To shorten hiring cycle

To reduce cost of hiring

To reach unvisited geographic areas

Pre-Employment Screening

  • To verify minimum qualifications

  • Electronic Screening

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  • Purposes of Applications forms

    • Record of applicant’s interest

    • Provides a profile of applicant

    • Basic record for applicants hired

    • To assess effectiveness of selection process

  • Resumes as Applications

    • EEO recognizes as application

    • Retain resumes at least three years.

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Reference Contacts

Application Form

Employment Testing

Application Time Limit

Information Falsification

Application Disclaimers

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EEO Considerations and Application Forms the United States

  • Applications should not contain illegal (nonjob-related) questions concerning:

    • Marital status

    • Height/weight

    • Number and ages of dependents

    • Information on spouse

    • Date of high school graduation

    • Contact in case of emergency

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Sample Application Form the United States

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Cognitive Ability the United StatesTests

Psychomotor Tests

Physical Ability Tests

Work Sample Tests

Situational Judgment Tests

Assessment Centers

Ability TestsAptitude and Achievement

Selection Testing: Ability Tests

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Other Assessments the United States

  • Personality Tests

    • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

    • Myers-Briggs

    • “Fakability”; socially desirable responses

    • Honesty/Integrity tests

    • Violence potential tests

  • Employee Polygraph Protection Act

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Big Five Personality Traits the United States

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Structured Interviews the United States

Biographical Interview

Behavioral Interview

Competency Interview

Situational Interview

Structured Interviews

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Benefits of Structured Interviews the United States

Meet federal EEO guidelines for the selection process

More reliable and valid than other interview formats

Obtain consistent information needed for selection decision

More on Structured Interviews

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Less Structured Interviews the United States

  • Nondirective Interview

    • Questions are developed based on answers to previous questions.

    • May not obtain needed information.

    • Information obtained may not be not job-related or comparable to that obtained from other applicants.

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Less Structured Interviews the United States

  • Stress Interviews

    • Designed to create anxiety and put pressure on an applicant to see how the person responds.

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Interviewers the United States

Individuals Sequentially

Panel Interview

Team Interview


Who Conducts Interviews?

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Plan the Interview the United States

Control the Interview

Questioning Techniques

Effective Interviewing

  • Conducting an Effective Interview

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Effective Interviewing the United States

  • Questions to Avoid

    • Yes/No questions

    • Obvious questions

    • Questions that rarely produce a true answer

    • Leading questions

    • Illegal questions

    • Questions that are not job related

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Snap Judgments the United States

Negative Emphasis

Poor Interviewing Techniques

Halo Effect

Biases and Stereotyping

Cultural Noise

Problems in the Interview

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Legal Issues in Background Investigations the United States

  • Risks of negligent hiring and retention

    • Employers are liable for employees’ actions.

    • Federal Privacy Act of 1974 requires signed releases from applicants to avoid privacy issues.

  • Negligent hiring

    • Employer fails to check the background of an employee who injures someone.

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Legal Issues in Background Investigations the United States

  • Negligent retention

    • Employer is aware an employee may be unfit for employment, continues to employ the person, and the person injures someone.

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Background Investigation the United States

  • Fair Credit Reporting Act

    • Requires disclosure of a credit check.

    • Requires written consent of applicant.

    • Requires copy of report be given to the applicant.

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Medical Examinations and Inquires the United States

  • American With Disabilities Act (ADA)

    • Prohibits pre-employment medical exams.

    • Prohibits rejecting persons for disabilities or asking disability-related questions until after a conditional job offer is made.

  • Drug Testing

    • Use of drug testing in the selection process is increasing.

    • Test must be monitored to protect integrity of results.

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Making the Job Offer the United States

  • Offer Guidelines

    • Formalize the offer with a letter to applicant clearly stating the terms and conditions of employment.

    • Avoid vague, general statements and promises.

    • Require return of signed acceptance of offer.

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Types of Global Employees the United States

Third-Country Nationals

Host-Country Nationals


Global Staffing Issues

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Who Is an Applicant? the United States

  • EEOC and OFCCP definition of “applicant”:

    • Has expressed interest electronically and is being considered for a specific position by the employer.

    • Has identified that he/she has the basic position qualifications.

    • Maintains his/her interest in the position throughout selection process.

    • Has been ranked using “hit features” by employer software or other data techniques