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Risk Management. By Niken Iwani Surya Putri . S.E.MSc . Agenda For Today. 1. Introduction 2. chairman, class rules 3. expectation 4. Introduction to subjects (14 class), Textbook: (Kit Sadgrove ) 5. Meeting 1: Introduction (Scale and Scope of Risk Management).

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    1. Risk Management By NikenIwani Surya Putri. S.E.MSc.

    2. Agenda For Today • 1. Introduction • 2. chairman, class rules • 3. expectation • 4. Introduction to subjects (14 class), • Textbook: (Kit Sadgrove) • 5. Meeting 1: • Introduction (Scale and Scope of Risk Management)

    3. Syllabi for 14 meeting • 1. Risk Management Introduction • 2. Why are Financial Institution Special? • 3. Depository Institutions • 4. Non depository Institutions (Insurance, Finance Companies) • 5. Non depository Institutions (Mutual Fund, Hedge Fund) • 6. Risks Faced By Financial Institutions • 7. Measuring Risks of Financial Institutions • MIDTERM EXAM

    4. Syllabi for 14 meeting • 8. Interest Rate Risk • 9. Market Risk • 10. Credit Risk • 11. Liquidity Risk • 12. Operational Risk • 13. Managing Risk 1: ALMA,deposit insurance, capital Adequacy • 14. Managing Risk 2: Hedging tools, loan sales, securitization • Final EXAM

    5. What is Risk? • Risk definition The Australian Standard 4360 on Risk Management : “… the chance of something happening that will have an impact upon objectives. It is measured in terms of likelihood and consequences”

    6. Kids, don’t try this without properly know what risk is.... Am not a reckless person just a very confident person, with insurance…

    7. What is risk Management? • A logical and systematic step • Steps in decision making, comprehensive • Opportunity Identification • Avoiding or Minimizingloss • Goodmanagementpractice

    8. What is RiskManagement? A logical and systematic method in to identify, analyze, treat, and monitoring potential risk in every business activities.

    9. What is risk management? A method for managers in using the best possible source to manage resources.

    10. How to handle risk Risk management develop responses from any identified events such below: • Prevention • Impact mitigation • Risk transfer • Risk acceptance

    11. What are the benefits? “Assist company in identifying potential risk that might threat the company, by analyzing its type, source, occurrence, and severity levels. Management may act promptly in order to minimize the risks”

    12. The user? • Finance and Investment • Insurance • Health Care • Public Institutions • Governments • International Corporation/MNC

    13. Risk Management’s Knowledge Are • Effective Risk ManagementSkill • Standardized process (International Risk Management process standards). • An integral part in finance and banking • An integral part of business and daily life

    14. Type of risks Failure of a project to reach its objectives • Client dissatisfaction • Unfavorable publicity • Threat to physical safety • Mismanagement • Fraud and deficiencies in financial control • Failure of equipment • Breach of legal responsibility

    15. Establish Board’s Philosophy on Risk Management { 1. Determine Strategic Determine Key Risk Areas Elements Stakeholder’s Risk Acceptance Expectations What Events can Create Unfavourable { Consequences in Key Risk Areas 2. Determine What Unfavourable Consequences can Occur Exposure What are the Impacts of these { Assess Risk 3. Determine Risks & Apply Determine & Apply Risk Management Techniques Techniques Monitor & Adapt Continuously Risk Management Models

    16. Steps in the Risk Management Process

    17. Type of Losses - Property loss exposures - Liability loss exposures - Business income loss exposures - Human resources loss exposures - Crime loss exposures - Employee benefits loss exposures - Foreign loss exposures

    18. Major loss exposures and techniques for handling the loss exposure include the following:

    19. Physical damage to a bus in an accident (can be handled by a commercial auto policy, by retention of part of all of the loss exposure, and by loss control activities to reduce the possibility of an accident)

    20. Sues arising out of injuries to children in a bus accident (can be handled by a commercial auto policy, by loss control such as a defensive driving course, and by avoiding hiring drivers with poor driving records)

    21. Suits arising out of bodily injury or property damage to other motorists or pedestrians (can be handled by a commercial auto policy, by loss control such as a defensive driving course, and by avoiding hiring drivers with poor driving records)

    22. Physical damage losses to the three garages from natural disasters or other perils (can be handled by a commercial property insurance policy and by retention of part of the exposure by a sizable deductible)

    23. Loss of business income if the firm is unable to operate (can be handled by business income insurance that covers the loss of business income and extra expenses that continue during the shutdown period and by loss control activities to reduce the possibility of a loss)

    24. Workers compensation claims if a bus driver or other employees are injured in a work-related accident (can be handled by workers compensation insurance and by self-insurance)

    25. Death or disability of a key executive (can be handled by loss control, such as an annual physical exam, and by having other employees trained to take over the duties of the key executive)

    26. Tools for recognizing loss exposures:

    27. - Risk analysis questionnaires - Physical inspection - Flow charts (standard operating procedure) - Financial statements - Historical loss data

    28. Risk Analysis Sources of Risk s(Internal dan External): • Commercial and Strategic • Economic • Contractual • Financial • Environmental • Political • Social • Project Initiation • Procurement Planning

    29. ENTERPRISE RISK PLATFORM Sales Risk Competition Risk Elasticity Risk Predictive Risk Strategic Risk Regulatory Risk Tax Risk Catastrophe Risk Currency Policy Physical Risk Physical Assets Real Estate Manufacturing Process Supply Chain Operational Risk Jurisdiction Risk Settlement Risk Systems Risk Employee Risk Strategic Decision Risk Purchasing Risk Financial Risks Market Risk Price risk (int. rate, ccy, equity, commodity) Curve risk Basis risk Correlation risk Option specific risk Cpty/Credit Risk Default risk Downgrading Liquidity Risk Funding Risk Market Liquidity Risk Analysis

    30. HAZARD PROBABILITY Frequent Likely Occasional Seldom Unlikely A B C D E SEVERITY I Extremely High Catastrophic High II Critical III Medium Low Moderate Negligible IV Risk Analysis

    31. Risk Analysis

    32. Level of Development Market Risk Credit Risk Asset/Liability Management Liquidity Risk Operational Risk Relatively Slower Advancement Adoption Maturity Lifecycle of Risk Management

    33. Shareholder Value Integrated Risk & Profitability Focus on Revenue and Cost Management Portfolio Management 2000+ Risk-adjusted performance Transfer pricing Value at Risk Fully integrated profitability and risk information Forward-looking, not just static, management tools 1990s Activity-based costing Focus on Risk Control (historical focus) Mark-to- market 1980s Evolution of Risk Decision Making

    34. Beware of Risks, but don’t be phobia toward Risks…

    35. Career choice Competency needed: • Business Risk Modelling • Risk Analysis tools such as: Value at Risk (VaR), Risk Simulation, RAROC.

    36. Risk Management in Finance and BankingThis is it, class.. For those who love math and stat.

    37. You’ll be watching clip movie Inside Job (10 min) • This movie is about the subprime mortgage (credit default swap) • In risk management perspective, what might go wrong?

    38. Famous Notation in Finance and Banking Risk Management Notation List Rev = Revenue C () = Probability of loss occurence (1 – C)= Confidence level  = Normal Standard Deviation R = Return Z = Normal Distribution i j = Coefficient correlation i and j

    39. Different Types of Risk • Speculative risks: Those that offer the chance of a gain as well as a loss. • Pure risks: Those that offer only the prospect of a loss. • Demand risks: Those associated with the demand for a firm’s products or services. • Input risks: Those associated with a firm’s input costs. • Financial risks: Those that result from financial transactions. • Property risks: Those associated with loss of a firm’s productive assets. • Personnel risk: Risks that result from human actions. • Environmental risk: Risk associated with polluting the environment. • Liability risks: Connected with product, service, or employee liability. • Insurable risks: Those which typically can be covered by insurance.

    40. An Approach to Risk Management • Corporate risk management is the management of unpredictable events that would have adverse consequences for the firm. • Firms often use the following process for managing risks. Step 1. Identify the risks faced by the firm. Step 2. Measure the potential impact of the identified risks. Step 3. Decide how each relevant risk should be dealt with.

    41. Techniques to Minimize Risk • Transfer risk to an insurance company by paying periodic premiums. • Transfer functions which produce risk to third parties. • Purchase derivatives contracts to reduce input and financial risks. • Take actions to reduce the probability of occurrence of adverse events. • Take actions to reduce the magnitude of the loss associated with adverse events. • Avoidthe activities that give rise to risk.

    42. Nature and Purpose of Trading in Financial Derivatives • Financial riskexposure refers to the risk inherent in the financial markets due to price fluctuations. • Hedging • Protect Value of Securities Held • Protect the Rate of Return on a Security Investment • Reduce Risk of Fluctuations in Borrowed Costs • Speculating

    43. Using Derivatives to Reduce Risk • Commodity Price Exposure • The purchase of a commodity futures contract will allow a firm to make a future purchase of the input at today’s price, even if the market price on the item has risen substantially in the interim. • Security Price Exposure • The purchase of a financial futures contract will allow a firm to make a future purchase of the security at today’s price, even if the market price on the asset has risen substantially in the interim.

    44. Using Derivatives to Reduce Risk • Foreign Exchange Exposure • The purchase of a currency futures or options contract will allow a firm to make a future purchase of the currency at today’s price, even if the market price on the currency has risen substantially in the interim.

    45. Risks to Corporations from Financial Derivatives • Increases financial leverage • Derivative instruments are too complex • Risk of financial distress

    46. Static VaR, Uncoditional variance • If FX is a random variable, observed in T period, expected FX is: T FX t ( 1 ) E (FX) = Σ T t =1 ( 2 ) Σ (FX – E(FX) 2 σ (FX) = T - 1 • Assuming FX is normally distributed, ( Z ) FX – E (FX) Z = σ (FX) whichE ( Z ) = 0, σ ( Z ) = 1 withP ( Z ) = 5%, maka Z = – 1,65 Basics of VaR

    47. Derivative Securities • Derivative: Security whose value stems or is derived from the value of other assets. • Types of Derivatives • Forward • Futures • Options • Swaps

    48. Forward Contracts • An agreement where one party agrees to buy (or sell) the underlying asset at a specific future date and a price is set at the time the contract is entered into. • Characteristics • Flexibility • Default risk • Liquidity risk • Positions in Forwards • Long position • Short position

    49. Futures Contracts • A standardized agreement to buy or sell a specified amount of a specific asset at a fixed price in the future. • Characteristics • Margin Deposits • Initial margin • Maintenance margin • Marking-To-Market • Floor Trading • Clearinghouse

    50. Hedging with Futures • Hedging: Generally conducted where a price change could negatively affect a firm’s profits. • Long hedge: Involves the purchase of a futures contract to guard against a price increase. • Short hedge: Involves the sale of a futures contract to protect against a price decline in commodities or financial securities. • Perfect hedge: Occurs when gain/loss on hedge transaction exactly offsets loss/gain on unhedged position.