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PP 2. enzymes. Define…. Enzyme: a protein that functions as a biological catalyst Catalyst: A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction and is not changed by the reaction. Can be repeatedly used Youtube on enzymes: Parts of enzymatic activity.

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PP 2


  • Enzyme: a protein that functions as a biological catalyst
  • Catalyst: A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction and is not changed by the reaction. Can be repeatedly used
  • Youtube on enzymes:
parts of enzymatic activity
Parts of enzymatic activity
  • Metabolic reactions – chemical reactions that take place in an organism for various purposes such as respiration, digestion, photosynthesis.
  • Many enzymes exist for different purposes with very specific reactions
parts of an enzyme lock and key
Parts of an enzyme / lock and key
  • The dent where all the activity happens is called the ACTIVE SITE
  • SUBSTRATE is what the enzyme is working on
  • The PRODUCT is the new substance is made

Here the enzyme is making a new molecule from 2 smaller ones

enzymes continued
Enzymes continued

Here the enzyme is breaking

A big molecule to make 2

Small ones (not shown)

lock and key model
Lock and key model
  • The enzyme is the lock and the substrate(s) is the key. The ‘key’ must fit perfectly in the ‘lock’ for the ‘door’ (enzymatic reaction) to ‘open’ (create a new product)
temperature and ph effects enzyme activity
Temperature and pH effects Enzyme Activity
  • Enzymes only work when conditions are prefect for them.
  • Different enzymes have different perfect conditions
  • They are all dependent on certain factors like Temperature and pH.
  • If the enzyme looses it’s shape – it looses its activity
  • When the shape of the enzyme is lost – this is called DENATURING.
  • An enzyme can be denatured by temperature and pH if they are not OPTIMUM (perfect) for that particular enzyme.
effects of temperature
Effects of Temperature
  • Bonds between molecules move faster when temperature rises.
  • But if the temperature becomes too high – the enzyme denatures

(egg white  egg white cooked)

(Liquid / opaque  solid / white)

(Albumin  denatured protein)

Rate of reaction vs. temp

Rate of reaction nearly doubles

near 400C.

Enzyme has denaturing as the temperature increases

effects of ph
Effects of pH
  • Effects of pH can often be reversible if the pH is not too extreme
  • Optimal pH
    • pH 6 - 8 for most enzymes.
    • pH of 2 for stomach enzymes
optimum temperature ph
Optimum temperature/ PH

pH: 0 , 1 , 2 , 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

Low pH High pH

I-----------Acid----------------I Neutral I----------------Base----------------I

outline of use of microorganisms fermenters to make penicillin
Outline of use of microorganisms / fermenters to make penicillin /
  • We can use microorganisms like bacteria / fungus to make the enzyme or antibiotics that we want.
  • These microorganisms are made in a fermenter
  • Penicillin (antibiotic) can be made in a fermenter.
  • Antibiotic is a substance that is made by a type of fungus called Penicillim to kill harmful bacteria.

The fungus is grown in Medium (liquid with nutrients) inside the fermenter and all that it needs to grow (oxygen, carbohydrates (sugar/starch) , Nitrogen, appropriate temperature &pH)

  • The fermenter is constantly stirred and cooled to keep the temperature constant.
enzymes for washing powers
enzymes for washing powers
  • Microorganisms that live in very high temperatures are isolated (from hot springs)
  • 85 Deg. C or higher is their optimal temp.
  • They are grown in fermeter like Penicillum
  • The liquid these microorganisms make is isolated and purified for use.
  • The liquid contains the needed enzyme.