MODULE : INTRO TO PERSPECTIVE LEARNING. CRITICAL THINKING AND COMMUNICATION THE USE OF REASON IN ARGUMENT . CHAPTERS ONE AND TWO. CHAPTER 1. ARGUMENT AND CRITICAL THINKING THOUGHT. Critical thinking is based on subject knowledge.
THE USE OF REASON
CHAPTERS ONE AND TWO
Step 1: Access
Step 2: Explore
Step 4: Integrate
Step 3 ; Evaluate
for Critical Thinkers
1. Because you are not God, it is inevitable some of the beliefs and viewpoints you firmly hold are completely wrong.
2. You must understand the viewpoints of those who disagree with you before you are fully able to understand your own viewpoints.
3. Until you can summarize another viewpoint so well those who hold it agree with your summary, you do not understand that viewpoint.
for Critical Thinkers
4. You should always assume those who disagree with your viewpoint are as intelligent and as noble-minded as you are.
5. You must be willing to seriously consider alternative viewpoints and to change your mind in order to be a critical thinker.
6. A retreat into relativism is a retreat away from critical thinking. Not all viewpoints are equally valid.
It is a reasoned, logical way of asserting the soundness of a position, belief, or conclusion.
It takes a stand—supported by evidence—and urges people to share the writer’s perspective and insights.
When people think of an argument, they usually think of a fight between two people (‘they’re having an argument’).
Actually, an argument is a piece of reasoning for the truth of a certain claim.
Thus, one person can give an argument for or against something.
An argument is validif it satisfies the first criterion. Otherwise, it is invalid.
An argument is soundif it satisfies both criteria. Otherwise, it is unsound.
You attack arguments by showing that it does not satisfy one (or both) of the criteria of a good argument. Either you show that the premises are unacceptable, or you show that it is unreasonable to draw the conclusion as stated, even if the premises would be true.
You do not attack an argument by showing that its conclusion is false!
Bad arguments are called fallacies.
There are many fallacies of which many people think that they are good arguments.
Fallacies usually follow certain patterns, so there are several categories of common fallacies.
Look at the statement below and decide whether you agree or disagree.
“ Using Facebook extensively can diminish a person’s intellectual ability”
Possible Responses :
Why argue with something as ridiculous as this?
It’s definitely true / definitely false
It’s true ! A friend of mine spent all day on facebook and ended up dropping out of college.
I don’t know
I’d say it’s 50% true and 50% false.
I agree/disagree for a number of reasons but I’d need more information before I give a definite answer.
Note : Choose one of the responses above. We will discuss this in