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Ancient Greece. How did they get here?. Civilizations spread from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, and other places in the Mediterranean region, including Greece. . Map of Mediterranean . Introduction . Minoans built brilliant civilization on Crete, but it vanished around 1400BC.

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How did they get here
How did they get here?

Civilizations spread from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, and other places in the Mediterranean region, including Greece.


  • Minoans built brilliant civilization on Crete, but it vanished around 1400BC.

  • Mycenaean's came after and conquered Greece, but were later destroyed by outsiders.

  • Greece entered a DARK AGE.

  • Civilizations returned with the rise of City-States.

  • Greece GOLDEN AGE was followed by conquest at the hands of Alexander the Great.

Geography of greece
Geography of Greece

  • Consisted of large mountainous peninsula, the island of the Aegean Sea, and the coast of present day Turkey.

  • Because of the terrain farming was difficult.

  • They relied on trade.

  • Produced: Wine, Olive Oil, and pottery.

Trade spread of ideas
Trade = Spread of Ideas

Through these contacts with others in Mediterranean, the Greeks became exposed to achievements of other ancient civilizations.

One example of this was the alphabet, a way of writing, invented by the Phoenicians.

Early greek civilization
Early Greek Civilization

  • The Minoans

  • Civilization flourished on the island of Crete from 2000BC to 1400BC.

  • Skilled at shipbuilding.

  • Mysteriously collapsed around 1400BC.


  • Second ancient Greek Civilization made famous in Iliad

  • Dominated Greek mainland, islands of Aegean Sea, and parts of Asia minor - 1400BC to 1200BC

  • Successful sea traders

  • Legendary stories (Trojan War) such as King Agamemnon, who achieved glory with his conquest of Troy.

  • Eventually conquered by Dorians

Trojan war
Trojan War

  • Mycenaean's are best remembered for their part in the Trojan War. (1250BC)

  • We get hints of life during this period from two great epic poems, Iliad and Odyssey, written by blind poet Homer.

  • Iliad is our chief source of information on the Trojan War.

Greece enters dark age
Greece Enters Dark Age

For centuries after the Dorian invasions, the Greeks lived in small, isolated villages.

They had no writing and few contacts with outside world.

From this start they would develop a civilization that would influence many parts of the world.

The rise of greek city states
The Rise of Greek City-States

  • Mountains and the seas caused Greek centers of populations to be cut off from one another.

  • They couldn’t create large empires, instead, they built small city-states.

What is a city state
What is a City-State

  • City-States were called a “Polis”

  • It was the dominate form of social and political organization.

  • 100’s of these cities existed in the Greek world.

  • Included a city and its surrounding country side, organized under a single government.

Two main city states
Two Main City-States



  • Limited democracy

  • Cleisthenes set up legislative assembly (open to citizens)

    • Men over 30 were citizens

  • Debt slavery outlawed (slavery still there)

  • Encouraged trade and travel

Athens continued
Athens continued…

  • Boys received broad education and military training

  • Girls received no education

  • Women were inferior, lived secluded lives


  • Oligarchy

  • Complete military society

  • Native-born men over 30 were citizens

  • Conquered people became slaves = helots

  • Prohibited tradeand travel

Sparta continued
Sparta Continued…

  • Unhealthy infants were abandoned (infanticide)

  • All boys began military training at age 7

  • Girls raised to be mothers of soldiers

  • Women obeyed men, but had right to inherit property, could be in public

The persian wars
The Persian Wars

  • Persia grew into a large and powerful empire through military conquest, building of good roads, and collecting tribute.

  • Persia tried to extend empire including small Greek Cities.

  • Athens fights Persia

  • Battle of Marathon

  • Persia comes back a second time and defeated again.

Result of the persian wars
Result of the Persian Wars

  • Victory increased Greeks sense of their own uniqueness:

    • their gods, their form of government (city-state)

      *Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state.

Peloponnesian wars
Peloponnesian Wars

  • Many Greeks outside of Athens began to resent Athenian domination.

  • Greek world split into rival camps.

  • Delian League = Athens side

  • Peloponnesian = Sparta and others

    The fighting would last for 27 years, eventually Sparta would win.