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International Personal Finance Financial Inclusion and Wellbeing Report. Wave 3 Results. April-May 2013. Contents. Background & Method Economic Outlook Financial Holdings Use of Credit Services Standard of Living Conclusions & Recommendations. 1. Background & Method.

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international personal finance financial inclusion and wellbeing report
International Personal FinanceFinancial Inclusion and Wellbeing Report

Wave 3 Results

April-May 2013

slide2
Contents

Background & Method

Economic Outlook

Financial Holdings

Use of Credit Services

Standard of Living

Conclusions & Recommendations

slide3
1

Background & Method

slide4
IPF currently provides consumer credit to 2.5 million customers, across six international markets. The business offering is unique for the markets in which IPF operates.

This project is designed to engage with IPF’s customer base, understand the issues they have and their feelings towards the society in which they live, and how they can be better represented in the political and commercial worlds.

IPF wishes to use this research to enhance its unique position as a mouthpiece for the lower socio-economic demographic amongst key groups of decision-makers.

This was the third wave to be run using the IPF panel

Please note that any reference in commentary to ‘Czechs’ or ‘Hungarians’ specifically relates to IPF customers in those markets and not the population of the country as a whole

Background

Background & Method

slide5
Method

The process was adjusted for this wave in order to invite new registrants as well as the existing panel

Background & Method

YES

Take survey now

Registration survey

Invitation from IPF to register for the panel

NO

Take survey later

Reminder to take survey

No response

Email invitation from YouGov to take Wave 3

Wave 2 survey

Complete now

Mexico only

Happy to take survey

Call from IPF inviting customer to take part in Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI)

Refused to take part

IPF customers not previously invited

IPF existing panellists

IPF customers without email addresses

slide6
Provident Communities

Background & Method

slide7
Weighting

Background & Method

For wave 3, we have formalised the weighting process so that the data contained in this report is reflective of IPF’s customer book1. IPF customer book is the split by country of the customer database2. Market-level weighting shows the weighting used in the individual country tables3. Overall-level weighting are the weights used in the overall tables to emphasise the importance of each group in the customer book as a whole

slide8
2

Economic Outlook

slide9
Cost of living is of most concern to half of IPF customers

Economic Outlook

  • Unemployment and crime are other elements that worry people
  • Concern over the cost of living increases with age from 38% of 18-24 year-olds to 59% of those 55+

Which of these is of most concern to you currently? Base: All (9,960)

slide10
A third of people cite increases in food prices as most responsible for the rise in the cost of living

Economic Outlook

  • A significant group of others, particularly in Romania, believe that the rise in utility prices is the main cause
  • Women are significantly more likely than men to blame the rise on the increase of food costs (36% vs. 29% of men)
  • One in ten IPF customers blames increased transport costs

Which of the following would you say is most responsible for the increase in the cost of living? Please select one answer only.

Base: All (9,960), CZ (1,796), HU (4,835), MX (542), PL (915), RO (1,478), SK (394)

slide11
Two in three Czechs are most concerned about the cost of living

Economic Outlook

  • Czechs in late teens/early 20s are those most concerned about losing their job
  • 5% of men claim to have no concerns compared to just 2% of women

Which of these is of most concern to you currently? Base: All in Czech Republic (1,796)

slide12
80% of Hungarians are concerned over the cost of living, the highest of all markets

Economic Outlook

  • Contrasting to the IPF customer book as a whole, concern over the cost of living decreases with age
  • Loss of jobs and cost of health services are of very little concern comparatively

Which of these is of most concern to you currently? Base: All in Hungary (4,835)

slide13
Mexico, out of trend with IPF’s European markets, is most concerned about local crime

Economic Outlook

  • One in three worry about neighbourhood crime, compared to only one in ten in IPF’s overall customer book – this may be driven by one of the highest murder rates worldwide
  • Cost of living worries significantly more men than women

Which of these is of most concern to you currently? Base: All in Mexico (542): Online (305) + CATI (237)

slide14
Concerns of Poles broadly reflect those of the IPF customer book

Economic Outlook

  • Cost of living remains of most concern, with loss of job a worry for one in four people
  • This figure reflects an unemployment rate of 14% in Poland, which is gradually decreasing after a high of 20% in 2003*

Which of these is of most concern to you currently? Base: All in Poland (915)

* http://www.tradingeconomics.com/poland/unemployment-rate

slide15
Cost of living is most concerning for Romanians, increasing with age from half of 18-24s to two-thirds of those 55+

Economic Outlook

  • Loss of jobs follows a reverse trend and unsurprisingly decreases with age
  • Romanians are the nation most concerned with the cost of education

Which of these is of most concern to you currently? Base: All in Romania (1,478)

slide16
Slovakians tend to have the same concerns as their Czech neighbours

Economic Outlook

  • However, they are slightly more concerned about crime in their neighbourhood
  • Cost of living is also of most concern in Slovakia, although levels are the same amongst young and old, with the exception of those aged 45-54

Which of these is of most concern to you currently? Base: All in Slovakia (394)

slide17
Just under half of IPF customers believe their national economic situation will deteriorate in the next 12 months

Economic Outlook

  • A further three in ten foresee stability in their countries
  • Poles (57%) and Slovakians (54%) are the customers whose outlook is most negative
  • Romanians (34%) and Mexican (23%) stand out as people who are quite positive about the immediate future

Thinking of the next twelve months, do you expect the economy in your country to get better or worse? Base: All (9,960), CZ (1,796), HU (4,835), MX (542), PL (915), RO (1,478), SK (394)

slide18
Two in five IPF customers hope that their household financial position will improve in the next 12 months

Economic Outlook

  • This contrasts with the feeling that national economies will not improve in the opinion of the majority
  • Positivity is driven by increased earnings, new jobs and changing personal situations
  • Of the one in five who think their household will get worse, 72% put this down to living costs

Thinking now of the financial position of your own household, over the next twelve months, do you think your financial position will get better or worse? You say that you think your financial position will get better/worse, which of these could explain why things will change? Base: All (9,960); Better (3,126); Worse (2,448)

slide19
Over half of Mexicans feel that their household economic situation will get better in the next 12 months

Economic Outlook

  • All other markets fall below the IPF customer average
  • Czechs and Hungarians are those most negative about the next 12 months, and this feeling is most driven by increases in the cost of living

Thinking now of the financial position of your own household, over the next twelve months, do you think your financial position will get better or worse? You say that you think your financial position will get better/worse, which of these could explain why things will change?

Base: All (9,960), CZ (1,796), HU (4,835), MX (542), PL (915), RO (1,478), SK (394)

slide20
Household economic situation summary

Economic Outlook

Almost half of people believe their country’s economic situation will decline in the next 12 months

Thecost of living is the predominant worry of IPF customers, who foresee this driving national economic deterioration

Primary concerns in driving this are the price rises in food, utilities and transport

Other concerns for people are crime in local area(particularly Mexico) and unemployment

Women are more likely than men to highlight the rise of food prices as a key contributor to increased living costs

Levels of positivity are driven by prospective increases in earnings

slide21
3

Financial Holdings

slide22
Almost half of IPF customers do not have a bank account. Only 9% would want one given the opportunity

Financial Holdings

  • One in five have no retirement savings plan, while insurance is also not high on list of financial products IPF customers own
  • Life insurance is the product most sought-after for those who do not have it

Which of these products do you have? Choose as many as apply.

Which additional financial products would you choose to have if your financial situation allowed it? Choose as many as apply.

Base: All (9,960)

slide23
Two-fifths of Czechs have retirement savings plans in place, double the average for IPF customers worldwide

Financial Holdings

  • Seven in ten Czechs have a bank account but only one in ten have savings accounts
  • ASU insurance tops the list of most-desired financial products

Which of these products do you have? Choose as many as apply.

Which additional financial products would you choose to have if your financial situation allowed it? Choose as many as apply.

Base: CZ (1,796)

slide24
More than three in four Hungarians have bank accounts; only 4% have a savings account

Financial Holdings

  • Home ownership seems to be relatively high in Hungary with two in five owning a mortgage and just under half holding home contents insurance

Which of these products do you have? Choose as many as apply.

Which additional financial products would you choose to have if your financial situation allowed it? Choose as many as apply.

Base: HU (4,835)

slide25
Bank account ownership is very low in Mexico, with fewer than one in five holding the product

Financial Holdings

  • Very few would actually take an account if given the opportunity
  • Life and ASU insurances are products that Mexicans aspire to have, as are savings accounts

Which of these products do you have? Choose as many as apply.

Which additional financial products would you choose to have if your financial situation allowed it? Choose as many as apply.

Base: MX (542)

slide26
Almost half of Poles have life insurance in place, the highest figure of all IPF markets

Financial Holdings

  • A further quarter would like to have life insurance if they were able to
  • Three in four have a bank account and a quarter hold a savings account

Which of these products do you have? Choose as many as apply.

Which additional financial products would you choose to have if your financial situation allowed it? Choose as many as apply.

Base: PL (915)

slide27
Perhaps worryingly, Romanians have more credit cards than any other financial products

Financial Holdings

  • Romanians would like to be more financially secure, with people wanting savings accounts, life insurance and retirement savings plans

Which of these products do you have? Choose as many as apply.

Which additional financial products would you choose to have if your financial situation allowed it? Choose as many as apply.

Base: RO (1,478)

slide28
Slovakians have the highest level of bank account ownership of all IPF markets

Financial Holdings

  • Life insurance and retirement savings plans are also owned by at least one in three Slovakians

Which of these products do you have? Choose as many as apply.

Which additional financial products would you choose to have if your financial situation allowed it? Choose as many as apply.

Base: SK (394)

slide29
Only one in ten Czechs have savings; 70% of people have Kč30,000 or more in debts

Financial Holdings

  • 85% are repaying Kč1,500 or more each month and only 2% are certain they have nothing to pay each month

Cash savings

Total debt

Repayments

Do you have any cash savings? If so how much? Thinking now of all your borrowings, which of the following ranges would your total debt fall into? How much do you spend each month on repaying credit and loans? Base: All in Czech Republic (1,796)

slide30
Only 3% of Hungarians have savings, with almost half having 400k Forints or more in debts

Financial Holdings

  • Only 4% have no debts
  • Three quarters of Hungarians are repaying 20,000+ Forints each month

Cash savings

Total debt

Repayments

Do you have any cash savings? If so how much? Thinking now of all your borrowings, which of the following ranges would your total debt fall into? How much do you spend each month on repaying credit and loans? Base: All in Hungary (4,835)

slide31
Four in five Poles are repaying more than 200 Zloty per month

Financial Holdings

  • This is understandable in a market where only 4% of IPF customers have no debts
  • 13% of Poles have savings

Cash savings

Total debt

Repayments

Do you have any cash savings? If so how much? Thinking now of all your borrowings, which of the following ranges would your total debt fall into? How much do you spend each month on repaying credit and loans? Base: All in Poland (915)

slide32
Two-thirds of Romanians have no savings, the lowest of all IPF markets

Financial Holdings

  • Half have debts between one and five thousand lei with two thirds repaying more than 250 lei each month

Cash savings

Total debt

Repayments

Do you have any cash savings? If so how much? Thinking now of all your borrowings, which of the following ranges would your total debt fall into? How much do you spend each month on repaying credit and loans? Base: All in Romania (1,478)

slide33
Half of Slovakians hold debts of over €1,000; only 3% have no debts

Financial Holdings

  • Over half of people need to repay between €60 and €300 each month
  • Two-thirds do not hold savings

Cash savings

Total debt

Repayments

Do you have any cash savings? If so how much? Thinking now of all your borrowings, which of the following ranges would your total debt fall into? How much do you spend each month on repaying credit and loans? Base: All in Slovakia (394)

slide34
Financial Holdings summary

Financial Holdings

BANK

Only 54% of IPF customers actually hold a bank account

1234 1234 1234 1234

Mr Smith

Credit card ownership is higher than any form of savings

Levels of savings are generally lowacross all European markets and very few people are debt-free

Despite this, repayments for the majority appear to be at an affordable level

There are positive levels of aspiration towards savings, long-term investments and retirement planning, provided the circumstances are correct

People are also aspiring to protect themselves against the economic situation with both Life and ASU insurance

slide35
4

Use of credit services

slide36
More than half of IPF customers believe that it has become more difficult to attain credit in the last few years

Use of credit services

  • Hungarians and Romanians are the people who claim the process has become more difficult than any others
  • A quarter of Slovakians and Mexicans assert that getting credit has become easier
  • Those most worried about the cost of living are most likely to believe that attaining credit has become more difficult

Would you say that it has become easier or more difficult to get credit in the last two to three years? Base: All (9,960), CZ (1,796), HU (4,835), MX (542), PL (915), RO (1,478), SK (394)

slide37
Six in ten IPF customers believe that they would have trouble trying to borrow money from a mainstream bank or lender

Use of credit services

  • However, a quarter think they would be able to, especially those in Slovakia
  • Hungarians feel they would be least likely to attain credit in this way
  • Females and those aged 55+ are the most likely to believe they would struggle

How easy do you think it would be for you to borrow [local currency] from a mainstream bank or lender? Base: All (9,960), CZ (1,796), HU (4,835), MX (542), PL (915), RO (1,478), SK (394)

slide38
Nine in ten IPF customers would be prepared to take a loan; half of these would do so in order to pay for unexpected costs

Use of credit services

  • Housing costs and purchase of household appliances are also items people would take a loan to pay for, even given greater consideration than health costs
  • Only 4% of 18-24s would not take a loan compared to 12% of those aged 55+

Would you consider taking a loan for the following? Choose as many as apply.

Base: All (9,960)

slide39
A third of Czechs would use loans to purchase household appliances; significantly higher amongst women than men

Use of credit services

  • Unexpected costs are still the expenses that most would consider taking a loan for
  • Consideration for taking a loan for housing costs decreases with age in line with life stage

Would you consider taking a loan for the following? Choose as many as apply.

Base: CZ (1,796)

slide40
A quarter of Hungarians would not take a loan for any costs outside of the essential

Use of credit services

  • Unexpected costs and housing costs are those Hungarians would be most prepared to take loans for
  • 12% of men would be prepared to take a loan for the purchase of electrical devices, compared to only 7% of women

Would you consider taking a loan for the following? Choose as many as apply.

Base: HU (4,835)

slide41
Mexicans would be significantly more likely than their European counterparts to take out loans to pay for education or healthcare

Use of credit services

  • Half of 18-24 year-olds would do so in order to pay education fees
  • 39% of women would take a loan for healthcare compared to only 33% of men

Would you consider taking a loan for the following? Choose as many as apply.

Base: MX (542)

slide42
Poles are the European group most likely to take a loan in order to pay for food

Use of credit services

  • Men are significantly more likely than women to take a loan for unexpected costs (49% vs. 38% respectively)
  • A third of Poles would use a loan for housing costs or purchase of household appliances

Would you consider taking a loan for the following? Choose as many as apply.

Base: PL (915)

slide43
For Romanians, purchase of household appliances is almost as likely as unexpected costs to warrant taking a loan

Use of credit services

  • Men and young people would prioritise unexpected costs, while women are more likely to use a loan for household appliances

Would you consider taking a loan for the following? Choose as many as apply.

Base: RO (1,478)

slide44
Slovakians are the group most likely to take a loan in order to pay for unexpected costs

Use of credit services

  • A quarter of individuals would use a loan for housing costs: 22% of men compared to 30% of women
  • Preparedness to use a loan to pay for healthcare increases with age

Would you consider taking a loan for the following? Choose as many as apply.

Base: SK (394)

slide45
The overwhelming majority of IPF customers claim to use credit in a sensible way, borrowing only when necessary

Use of credit services

  • This is manifested by 93% thinking before they borrow, 87% only using credit in emergencies and 84% not borrowing unless they know they can afford repayments
  • Comfort in affording credit repayments appears to decrease with age

Please indicate whether you agree of disagree with each of the following statements… Base: All (9,960)

slide46
One in five Czechs tend to use credit on impulse, significantly higher than the 16% of IPF customers as a whole

Use of credit services

  • 69% of men claim they can comfortably afford credit repayments compared to only 63% of women

Please indicate whether you agree of disagree with each of the following statements… Base: All in Czech Republic (1,796)

slide47
Only four in ten Hungarians can comfortably afford to repay their credit loans

Use of credit services

  • This compares to seven in ten of the overall IPF customer book
  • Impulsive credit use is significantly higher amongst men compared to their female counterparts, who tend to prefer emergency credit use only

Please indicate whether you agree of disagree with each of the following statements… Base: All in Hungary (4,835)

slide48
86% of Mexicans can comfortably afford their credit repayments

Use of credit services

  • Only one in ten use credit on impulse, a more restrained proportion than all European markets
  • Only 14% will usually borrow as much as the lender will allow, compared to 34% of IPF customers worldwide

Please indicate whether you agree of disagree with each of the following statements… Base: All in Mexico (542): Online (305) + CATI (237)

slide49
Just a quarter of Poles use credit as part of the way they manage their budget

Use of credit services

  • However, 20% tend to use credit on impulse, more than most other markets
  • 45% will borrow as much as the lender will give them, significantly higher than the IPF average

Please indicate whether you agree of disagree with each of the following statements… Base: All in Poland (915)

slide50
Romanians seemingly treat credit differently to most of their counterparts in other IPF markets

Use of credit services

  • This is demonstrated by almost half of Romanians using credit as part of their budget management
  • Nine in ten do not borrow more than they can repay (91% vs. 84% of IPF average)

Please indicate whether you agree of disagree with each of the following statements… Base: All in Romania (1,478)

slide51
Three in five Slovakians will only borrow as much as the lender will allow

Use of credit services

  • This figure is comprised of 55% of men compared to 62% of women
  • 85% only use credit in an emergency, although 35% say they use it as part of their budget management

Please indicate whether you agree of disagree with each of the following statements… Base: All in Slovakia (394)

slide52
Two-thirds of IPF customers allude to speed and convenience as key factors when dealing with a financial organisation

Use of credit services

  • Mexicans stand out as they look for good reputation as the highest priority
  • Special deals for customers are particularly treasured amongst Poles
  • Those aged 35-44 are the group most likely to look for special deals for loyal & long-standing customers

Which of the following is important to you when dealing with a financial organisation? Choose as many as apply.

Base: All (9,960), CZ (1,796), HU (4,835), MX (542), PL (915), RO (1,478), SK (394)

slide53
Use of credit services summary

Use of credit services

In the opinion of the majority, attaining credit has become more difficult in the last few years

60% believe they would find it difficult or impossible to take credit from a mainstream lender

Credit is generally used sensibly by IPF customers: only in emergencies and after careful consideration

Most claim that they only borrow as much as they can comfortably afford to repay

Taking a loan to pay for something is a course of action most would consider

Unexpected costs are the amounts people would most likely borrow for. At least a quarter would use a loan to pay for housing, household appliances or healthcare

Speed and convenience are the factors most sought after when dealing with financial organisations

slide54
5

Standard of living

slide55
More than three quarters of IPF customers worldwide have spent cautiously in the last 12 months

Living Standards

  • Cautious spending seemingly increases with age
  • Romanians are those who have been prepared to spend a little more freely
  • Hungarians are the most cautious with nine in ten spending more carefully than past

Thinking about day-to-day spending over the last twelve months, which of the following would apply to how you have approached spending in current economic conditions? Base: All (9,960), CZ (1,796), HU (4,835), MX (542), PL (915), RO (1,478), SK (394)

slide56
Amongst those whose spending has been more cautious in the past 12 months, socialising is the expenditure most reduced

Living Standards

  • This is followed very closely by consumer goods and holidays, all three items that could be considered non-essential
  • Hungarians and Romanians are significantly more likely than other people to cut back on consumer goods
  • Three in four Poles have cut their socialising

1/2

You have said that you have been more cautious in your spending in the last 12 months. Which if any of the following have you cut back on in order to decrease your level of day-to-day spending over the last twelve months? Please select all that apply.

Base: All whose spending is more cautious (7,847), CZ (1,176), HU (4,384), MX (451), PL (741), RO (870), SK (225)

slide57
Two in five IPF customers have cut back on quality food in order to spend more cautiously

Living Standards

  • However, this rises to two in three in Hungary, and is at a similar level in Romania
  • Heating is also something that half of Hungarians are cutting back on
  • Women are more likely to cut back on consumer goods while men have reduced spending on transport

2/2

You have said that you have been more cautious in your spending in the last 12 months. Which if any of the following have you cut back on in order to decrease your level of day-to-day spending over the last twelve months? Please select all that apply.

Base: All whose spending is more cautious (7,847), CZ (1,176), HU (4,384), MX (451), PL (741), RO (870), SK (225)

slide58
Three-quarters of IPF customers would find it hard to summon up money for emergency payments, or to save for a major purchase

Living Standards

  • Mexicans feel it would be easier to find the money for these causes
  • Hungarians are the people most likely to find it difficult

All

Czech Rep

Hungary

Mexico

Poland

Romania

Slovakia

If you were to face an emergency or an unexpected bill or expense how easy or difficult would it be for you to find -amount- without borrowing?

How easy or difficult would you find it to save -amount- for a major purchase of something that you needed?

Base: All (9,960), CZ (1,796), HU (4,835), MX (542), PL (915), RO (1,478), SK (394)

slide59
Four in ten people are satisfied with the standard of living in their household; a quarter are dissatisfied

Living Standards

  • Positivity is far greater in Mexico, with two-thirds satisfied with their living standards
  • Hungarians have the lowest levels of satisfaction, with over half feeling indifferent
  • Satisfaction with standard of living is significantly lower as people get older (50% of 18-24 year-olds vs. 30% of those aged 55+)

Generally, how satisfied are you with the overall standard of living of your household?

Base: All (9,960), CZ (1,796), HU (4,835), MX (542), PL (915), RO (1,478), SK (394)

slide60
Standard of living summary

Living Standards

IPF customers have spent more cautiously in the past 12 months, a trend that increases with age

Socialising, consumer goods and holidaysare the items cautious spenders are most likely to cut down on

Worryingly, a significant proportion of people are reducing their spending on quality food

Fewer than half of people are satisfied with their overall standard of living

The majority of people would be unable to find money to make emergency payments or save for major purchases

slide61
6

Conclusions & Recommendations

slide62
The cost of living is of most concern to people, driven in the main by increases in the price of daily essentials, most notably food, utilities and transport

Mexico, out of alignment with its European counterparts, is the only IPF market where the major concern is something other than cost of living; in their case it is neighbourhood crime which most worries people

Some do foresee a wave of economic stability reaching their respective countries, but the majority uphold a negative outlook, predominantly motivated by the high cost of living

Where economic positivity prevails, it is propelled by improvements in the employment market: either by a change of job, or an increased income

Many aspire to own savings and insurance products, but the reality is that few have these while a significant proportion hold credit cards

Summary of findings (1)

slide63
Very few individuals are debt-free, but repayment levels are manageable for most

This is supported by the majority of IPF customers using credit in a sensible fashion, giving it due consideration before attaining it

Most individuals would use loans to pay for things, although this attitude generally applies to unexpected costs

This is because the majority of people would find it hard to make emergency payments or save for a particular purchase, no doubt supported by relatively few having savings of any amount

Summary of findings (2)

slide64
Reductions in expenditure are now commonplace for IPF customers, for whom spending has consciously become more cautious in the past 12 months

Fewer than half of people are satisfied with their overall standard of living

Summary of findings (3)

slide65
What do people think is holding them back from taking out savings products? Is it a simple case of lack of money or something more significant?

Is there common consensus about what is driving those who feel the economy faces a positive future?

The majority claim to use credit in a sensible way, but is this the case when they approach IPF? Have they thought it through, and if so what processes have allowed them to arrive at the decision to take credit?

We know how much people are repaying each month, but is there value in understanding the percentage of their monthly income that goes straight out to cover debts?

What do people believe will improve their outlook on standard of living?

Potential subjects for revisiting

contact

Contact

Leo Brownstein, YouGov Financial Services

leo.brownstein@yougov.com Tel: 0207 012 6013