PNEUMOCONIOSIS. Conf. Dr. Brandusa Constantin. Definition : "Pneumoconiosis is the accumulation of mineral dust in the lung and the tissue reaction to its presence". Classification Collagenous pneumoconiosis is characterized by:
Conf. Dr. Brandusa Constantin
Definition: "Pneumoconiosis is the accumulation of mineral dust in the lung and the tissue reaction to its presence".
- permanent alteration or destruction of alveolar architecture
- collagenousstromal reaction of moderate to maximal degree
- permanent scarring of lung.
Complicated coalworkers' pneumoconiosis or progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) is an altered tissue response to a relatively non-fibrogenic dust.
- the alveolar architecture remains intact
- the stromal reaction is minimal and consists mainly of reticulin fibres
- the lesion is potentially reversible examples are those caused by pure dusts of barium sulphate (barytosis), kaolinite, titanium dioxide, ferric oxide, glass;
- iron dust if inhaled in sufficient quantities can lead to pneumoconiosis - known as siderosis. The disease is seen in metal polishes, arc-welders, but above all among iron mines. In some iron mines, the presence of free silica leads to mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. Siderosis is observed after long exposure 15-25 years. The radiological appearance of siderosis is discrete, we may find punctiform images, rarely micronodular and never macronodular or pseudotumoral after exposure has ceased, the images are seen to precede somewhat in the course of the years.
- concentration of dust in the atmosphere
- the percentage of free silica in the dust
- the exposure time.
The dangerous free silica particles are those with a diameter of less than 3 m called "respirable fraction".
The nodules may aggregate to form round masses ranging from a few millimetres to 1 cm in diameter; in more serious cases a number of nodules coalesce or form large hyaline masses. The coalescing of several nodules is almost always caused by additional factors, of which infection, often tubercular, or rheumatoid factor seem to be the most important.
Symptoms at the beginning of this century (in Romania at 1950-1960 years), fatal cases of silicosis with a rapid evolution (1-3 years) so-called "acute silicosis" were not uncommon among workers who inhaled enormous quantities of dust with a high quartz content (for example the mining Lesu-Ursului with 90-96% silica free in atmosphere).
The radiographic examination must be carried out using a suitable technique.
1. Good; 2. Acceptable; 3. Mediocre; 4. Unacceptable.
The short classification