Download
passeriformes iii n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Passeriformes III PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Passeriformes III

Passeriformes III

172 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Passeriformes III

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Passeriformes III Turdidae Timaliidae Mimidae Motacillidae Ptilogonatidae Bombycillidae Sturnidae Parulidae Thraupidae Cardinalidae

  2. Passeriformes: Passerine or perching birds • Field Marks: • Range in size from tiny Bushtit to the Common Raven • Feet anisodactyl and neither lobed, webbed, nor semipalmate • Hallux usually incumbent and equal to or longer than rest of toes • Foot structure referred to as “perching foot,” unique to this group • Wings have either 9 or 10 primaries • Life History: • Includes insectivores, granivores, frugivores, carnivores, and omnivores • Young are altricial, naked and reared in the nest • Roughly 60% of all birds belong to this order, the world’s largest order of birds • Divided into two suborders: suboscines and oscines • Distribution: • Present everywhere, except Antarctica and the oceans

  3. Turdidae: Thrushes • Field Marks: • Some with brown upperparts and spotted underparts • Others brightly colored • Straight, slender bill, not sharply pointed • Upright posture • Relatively long-winged and long-legged • Sex: • Males obviously brighter colored than females in many species • Habitat: Woodlands and open areas • Life History: • Eat arthropods and worms gleaned from soil surface or vegetation; also fruit during migration and winter • Most species are migratory • Many species well known for their songs • Among oldest on record: 13 yrs 11 mos • Distribution: • 330 species in 54 genera, on all continents and many oceanic islands • 18 species in 9 genera in North America

  4. Timaliidae: Babblers (Wrentit) • Field Marks: • Dark brown upperparts with pinkish-brown underparts • Short, brown bill • Long, rounded tail, often cocked • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: Scrublands, woodlands, and reed beds • Life History: • Eat insects and spiders gleaned from bark or ground; also fruit and seeds • Nonmigratory, largely sedentary • Most species maintain group territories and nest communally • Among oldest on record: 12 yrs 7 mos • Distribution: • 270 species in 50 genera, mostly in tropical Asia • 1 species in North America

  5. Mimidae: Mockingbirds and Thrashers • Field Marks: • Brown and gray upperparts with pale underparts, sometimes streaked • Short, rounded wings with long legs and tail • Long, often decurved bills • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: • Wet, dense thickets to deserts, chaparral, and sagebrush steppes • Life History: • Eat insects and small fruit gleaned from ground and low vegetation • Most species non-migratory • Monogamous, with pairs sometimes lasting several years • Among oldest on record: 14 yrs, 10 mos • Distribution: • 34 species in 11 genera, exclusively in the Americas • 10 species in 4 genera in North America

  6. Motacillidae: Wagtails and Pipits • Field Marks: • Streaked and cryptically colored brown plumage (Pipits) or bright yellow plumage (Wagtails) • Long tails • Slender, pointed warbler-like bill • Sex: Monomorphic (Pipits) to dimorphic (Wagtails) • Habitat: Waterside and open habitats • Life History: • Eat terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates gleaned from ground and pond or stream edges • Most frequently bob and wag tails • Many species migratory • Among oldest on record: 9 yrs, 11 mos • Distribution: • 65 species in 5 genera, on all continents but Antarctica • 6 species in 2 genera in North America

  7. Ptilogonatidae: Silky-flycatchers • Field Marks: • Soft silky black, gray, or brown plumage • Short, broad bills with conspicuous rictal bristles • Long, slender tails • Most have crested heads • Sex: Dimorphic • Habitat: Arid scrubland and woodlands • Life History: • Eat berries, fruit, and insects, often caught on the wing • Nest in loose colonies, varying with food abundance • Little information on longevity available • Distribution: • 4 species in 3 genera, from southwestern U.S. to western Panama • 1 species in North America

  8. Bombycillidae: Waxwings • Field Marks: • Sleek gray and brown plumage with a crest • Small legs and feet • Small, wide, notched bill • Square tail with terminal yellow band • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: Open woods, hedgerows, and orchards • Life History: • Eat sugary fruit plucked from branches, as well as insects in summer • Migratory and nomadic • Gregarious, forming large nonbreeding flocks • Among oldest on record: 12 yrs, 7 mos • Distribution: • 3 species in 1 genus, all in northern temperate zone • 2 species in 1 genus in North America

  9. Sturnidae: Starlings and Mynas • Field Marks: • Dark upperparts with metallic purples, greens, blues, or black • Straight, tapered bill • Usually short, square tails • Short, triangular or rounded wings • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: Commonly associated with human habitations • Life History: • Eat mainly insects, also other invertebrates, fruit, nectar, grain, eggs • Often forage on ground, probing will bill • Have specially developed muscles for prying open their bills while probing in the ground for insects (called gaping) • Among oldest on record: 20 yrs, 1 month • Distribution: • 113 species in 27 genera, in Africa, Eurasia, and Pacific islands • 4 species in 3 genera introduced to North America

  10. Parulidae: Wood-Warblers • Field Marks: • Often brightly-colored plumage dominated by yellows and olives • Many other colors common as well • Usually slender, pointed bills • Thin, weak-looking legs and feet • Sex: Dimorphic • Habitat: Forest, shrubland, or marsh • Life History: • Eat mainly insects, gleaned from leaves, twigs, bark • May also eat fruit and nectar in winter • Most North American species migratory • Belong to the large group of New World nine-primaried oscines • Species occasionally hybridize • Among oldest on record: 11 yrs, 6 mos • Distribution: • 116 species in 26 genera in the Americas • 53 species in 16 genera in North America

  11. Thraupidae: Tanagers • Field Marks: • Males with very brightly-colored plumage • Females and immatures drab • Stout, somewhat pointed bills, most with a tomial tooth • Sex: Dimorphic • Habitat: Woodlands • Life History: • Eat insects and fruit plucked from vegetation; sometimes flycatch • North American species migratory • Belong to the large group of New World nine-primaried oscines • Among oldest on record: 10 yrs, 1 month • Distribution: • 254 species in 65 genera, only in the western hemisphere • 6 species in 2 genera in North America

  12. Cardinalidae: Cardinals and Allies • Field Marks: • Males often very colorful • Females more cryptic • Robust, conical bills • Sex: Dimorphic • Habitat: Scrub, forest edges, and open areas • Life History: • Eat seeds, grains, fruit, insects, flower buds, blossoms • Glean food from ground, low shrubs, and trees • Most North American species migratory • Belong to the large group of New World nine-primaried oscines • Among oldest on record: 15 yrs, 9 mos • Distribution: • 43 species in 12 genera, only in the New World • 13 species in 7 genera in North America

  13. Winter ©Photo by Pascal Dubois ©Photos by Peter LaTourrette Breeding European StarlingSturnus vulgaris • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Sturnidae • Field Marks: • Dark, glossy plumage with purplish and greenish iridescence • Short, square tail • Pointed wings • Long bill, yellow in breeding season • Plumage speckled when fresh, in fall in winter, gradually wearing off • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: • Habitat generalist, avoiding undisturbed forest and desert • Life History: • Occurs year round in CA • Spread from an introduction of 100 individuals in Central Park, NYC in 1890 and 1891, to around 200 million individuals today • Conservation: • Intense competitor for nesting cavities, displacing native species

  14. Male Female ©Photos by Bob Steele Phainopepla Phainopepla nitens • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Ptilogonatidae • Field Marks: • Glossy black to gray upperparts and underparts • Ragged, crested head • Long tail • Red iris • Sex: • Female is dark gray with pale gray edging on all wing feathers • Male is glossy black with white wing patch on primaries • Habitat: Riparian and oak woodlands • Life History: • Short-distance migrant, but occurs in CA year-round • Conspicuous, often seen perching in tree tops • Name means “shining robe” in Greek

  15. ©Photos by Peter LaTourrette Cedar WaxwingBombycilla cedrorum • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Bombycillidae • Field Marks: • Gray-brown upperparts and underparts, with pale yellow abdomen • Black face mask with white edges and black chin • Prominent crest • Yellow or orange tipped tail • Whitish undertail coverts • Waxy red tips on the secondaries • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: Woodlands and forests, especially near berries • Life History: • Migratory, occurring in CA mainly in winter • Diet specialized on sugary fruits • Somewhat nomadic, wandering in flocks searching out fruit

  16. ©Photos by Peter LaTourrette Cedar WaxwingBombycilla cedrorum • A series of very high-pitched • sreee • notes in irregular rhythm

  17. Male ©Photo by Mike Danzenbaker ©Photo by Bob Steele Female Hermit WarblerDendroica occidentalis • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Parulidae • Field Marks: • Gray upperparts with whitish underparts • White undertail coverts • Yellow head with dark throat and nape • Two white wingbars • Extensive white on outer rectrices • Sex: • Male has black throat and nape • Female has more olive in throat and nape, mottled with yellow • Habitat: Coniferous forests • Life History: • Neotropical migrant • Probably sister species to Townsend’s Warbler, and they may hybridize where their ranges overlap

  18. ©Photos by Peter LaTourrette Northern MockingbirdMimus polyglottos • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Mimidae • Field Marks: • Gray to gray-brown upperparts with whitish underparts • Long tail and legs • Bill slightly decurved • White wing bars, and a large white wing-patch visible in flight • White outer rectrices • Thin, dark eye line • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: • Parklands and surburban areas with short grass • Life History: • Occurs year-round • Historically sold as caged birds for their singing ability • Both males and females sing, and may have up to 150 song types

  19. ©Photos by Peter LaTourrette Northern MockingbirdMimus polyglottos • Phrases repeated 2-6 times, a pause, • followed by a new phrase • krrDEE-krrDEE-krrDEE, • jeurrrdi jeurrrdi jeurrrdi….

  20. ©Photos by Bob Steele Townsend’s SolitaireMyadestes townsendi • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Turdidae • Field Marks: • Plain gray overall • White eye ring • Dark gray remiges with wide buffy band at the base • White on outer rectrices • Short, wide bill • Relatively long tail • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: Coniferous forests • Life History: • Occurs year-round in CA, migrating altitudinally • “one of the most glorious and beautiful of bird songs” • Little studied, and often overlooked

  21. Female ©Photos by Bob Steele Male Black-throated Gray WarblerDendroica nigrescens • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Parulidae • Field Marks: • Upperparts gray with black streaks • Underparts white with black streaks • White undertail coverts • Dark crown and cheek patch, bordered by white stripes • Small yellow spot on lores • Two white wing bars • Extensive white on outer rectrices • Sex: • Male has black crown and throat • Female has grayer crown and white, mottled throat • Habitat: Coniferous forests • Life History: • Neotropical migrant • Poorly studied

  22. ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Lazuli BuntingPasserina amoena • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Cardinalidae • Field Marks: • Upperparts brown with blue tint to bright blue • Warm buffy to orange breast fading to pale buffy or white abdomen • Two buffy to white wing bars • Upper mandible black, and lower mandible light blue • Sex: • Males in alternate plumage with bright blue upperparts, two bold white wing bars, and bright rufous orange breast band • Females, and males in basic plumage, browner with blue tint to head, shoulders, and rump, and two buffy wing bars • Habitat: Riparian woodland • Life History: • Neotropical migrant • Each male sings a unique song, developed from copying and rearranging parts of the songs of older males • Named after the blue gemstone: lapis lazuli

  23. ©Photos by Bob Steele Wrentit Chamaea fasciata • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Timaliidae • Field Marks: • Grayish-brown upperparts with paler pinkish-brown underparts • Faint supercilium (eyebrow) • Throat and breast may be lightly streaked • Long graduated tail often held tilted up • Iris color varies from gray to maroon depending on age • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: Chaparral • Life History: • Nonmigratory, occurs year-round • Only North American member of the family • Form lifelong, monogamous pair bonds, defending territorial year-round • Both males and females incubate eggs in the nest

  24. ©Photos by Bob Steele Wrentit Chamaea fasciata • Rhythm of a bouncing ball. • Male’s song speeds up to a trill, • while female’s song keeps an even rhythm: • pwid pwid pwid pwidwidrdrdrdrdr

  25. Lucy’s WarblerVermivora luciae • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Parulidae • Field Marks: • Upperparts uniformly gray with off-white underparts • White undertail coverts • No wing bars • Reddish crown and rump patch • Pale eye line • Sharply pointed bill • Sex: Females with paler, diffuse, or no crown patch • Habitat: • Riparian woodlands of the desert, associated with mesquite • Life History: • Neotropical migrant • Nests almost entirely in the lower Sonoran desert • One of the smallest New World warblers, and one of the few that nests in cavities ©Photos by Bob Steele

  26. Female Male ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Townsend’s WarblerDendroica townsendi • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Parulidae • Field Marks: • Upperparts olive green with black streaks or spots • Yellow breast and flanks with black streaks • Remaining underparts white, including undertail coverts • Dark crown and cheek patch bordered by yellow stripes • Two white wing bars • Extensive white on outer rectrices • Sex: • Male has black crown, cheek patch, and throat • Female has dark olive crown and cheek patch, and yellow throat • Habitat: Coniferous forests • Life History: • Migrant, wintering along CA coast and central America • Joins mixed-species flocks in winter

  27. Male,alternate plumage 1st winter, basic plumage ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Yellow-rumped WarblerDendroica coronata • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Parulidae • Field Marks: • Gray upperparts and white underparts with black streaks • White undertail coverts • Yellow rump patch • Dark cheek with contrasting white or yellow throat • Two white wing bars • White on outer rectrices • Sex: • Males in alternate plumage with yellow crown patch • Females in alternate plumage with duller upperparts • Both sexes duller and browner overall in basic plumage • Habitat: • Coniferous forests, but more widespread in winter • Life History: • Migratory, some populations wintering or resident in CA • Divided into two very similar subspecies: Myrtle’s and Audubon’s

  28. Male,alternate plumage 1st winter, basic plumage ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Yellow-rumped WarblerDendroica coronata • Clear, two-part warble, speeding up at end • Call a husky chwit

  29. ©Photo by Steve Messick ©Photo by Bob Steele Swainson’s ThrushCatharus ustulatus • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Turdidae • Field Marks: • Uniformly olive-brown upperparts, sometimes tinged rufous • White underparts • Triangular brownish-black spotting on breast and throat • Buffy eye ring • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: • Riparian woodlands in CA (but coniferous forests elsewhere) • Life History: • Long-distance neotropical migrant • Conservation: • No official conservation status yet, but populations declining • Causes may include loss of riparian habitat and possibly wintering habitat in Central and South America

  30. ©Photos by Peter LaTourrette Hermit ThrushCatharus guttatus • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Turdidae • Field Marks: • Olive-brown upperparts with contrasting rufous rump and tail • White underparts • Large, rounded brownish-black spotting on breast and throat • Thin whitish eye ring • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: • Forests and woodlands, with brushy understory • Life History: • Present mainly in winter, but some populations may be resident • Often seen on forest floor, flicking wings and quickly raising and lowering tail

  31. ©Photos by Peter LaTourrette Hermit ThrushCatharus guttatus • Melodious, fluty warble with a metallic quality • also a whining, rising: • zhweeee

  32. ©Photos by Peter LaTourrette Sage ThrasherOreoscoptes montanus • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Mimidae • Field Marks: • Brownish-gray upperparts with off-white underparts streaked with brown • White wing bars and tips of outer rectrices • Whitish supercilium and malar, with black border at sides of throat • Relatively short bill, only slightly curved • Pale iris • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: Sagebrush shrub-steppe • Life History: • Short-distance migrant • Smallest of the thrashers

  33. ©Photo by Glen Tepke ©Photo by Bob Steele California ThrasherToxostoma redivivum • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Mimidae • Field Marks: • Plain brown upperparts with buffy underparts • Orange undertail coverts • No wing bars • Buffy supercilium and strong, dark eye line and cheek • Long, decurved, blackish bill • Dark iris • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: Chaparral • Life History: • Non-migratory • Endemic to CA and northwestern Baja

  34. ©Photo by Glen Tepke ©Photo by Bob Steele California ThrasherToxostoma redivivum • Low, harsh notes • repeated 2-3 times, • but not strongly patterned

  35. ©Photos by Bob Steele Le Conte’s ThrasherToxostoma lecontei • Order: Passereiformes • Family: Mimidae • Field Marks: • Plain sandy-gray upperparts and underparts without streaks • Tawny undertail coverts • No wing bars • Dark lores, but otherwise little head pattern • Long, decurved blackish bill • Dark iris • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: Desert scrub • Life History: • Non-migratory • Rarely drinks water • Runs between shrubs like a Greater Roadrunner • Conservation: • CA Species of Special Concern • Threats include habitat disturbance from off-road vehicles and development

  36. Male ©Photo by Mike Danzenbaker Female ©Photo by Steve Messick Varied ThrushIxoreus naevius • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Turdidae • Field Marks: • Gray-blue upperparts with orange underparts • Bright orange supercilium and wing markings • Gray breastband • Large and “pot-bellied” • Sex: • Female is paler overall, with grayer back and breastband • Male is more richly colored with very dark breastband • Habitat: Coastal coniferous forests • Life History: • Nearctic migrant; occurs in CA in winter, except extreme NW CA where it occurs year-round • Often found in loose flocks in winter

  37. Male ©Photo by Mike Danzenbaker Female ©Photo by Steve Messick Varied ThrushIxoreus naevius • Slow series of whistles • in varying pitches, • sometimes buzzy

  38. ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Yellow-breasted ChatIcteria virens • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Parulidae • Field Marks: • Upperparts olive green to grayish • Throat and breast bright yellow • White abdomen and undertail coverts • No wing bars • White “spectacles” with dark lores and bill • Very large size, long tail, and heavy bill • Sex: • Females have grayish lores and paler lower mandible • Males have black lores and uniformly black bill • Habitat: • Scrub, forests, woodlands, associated with dense brush • Life History: Neotropical migrant • Conservation: • CA Species of Special Concern • Causes include loss of riparian habitat, and likely cowbird parasitism

  39. Female ©Photo by Frank Johnson Male ©Photo by Bob Steele Summer TanagerPiranga rubra • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Thraupidae • Field Marks: • Greenish yellow to bright red plumage overall • Back, wings, and tail not contrasting in color with body • No wing bars • Sex: • Males are bright rosy-red year-round • Females vary from greenish-yellow to mottled orange • Habitat: • Desert riparian woodlands, especially willows and cottonwoods • Life History: • Neotropical migrant • Conservation: • CA Species of Special Concern • Causes include destruction of cottonwood habitat, especially along the Colorado River

  40. Female Male ©Photos by Peter LaTourrette Mountain BluebirdSialia currucoides • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Turdidae • Field Marks: • Sky blue to blue-brown upperparts and underparts • No chestnut coloration on breast or scapulars • Thin, dark bill • Relatively long wings and tail • Sex: • Male is sky blue overall with whitish abdomen and dusky wingtips • Female is blue-brown with sky blue remiges and rectrices • Habitat: Oak woodlands and grasslands • Life History: • Highly migratory; present in winter • Unusual among thrushes in that it nests in cavities, has a high degree of dimorphism, eats more insects, and frequently hovers while foraging • May occur in large flocks in winter, mixed with Western Bluebird

  41. Female Male ©Photo by Bob Steele ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Western BluebirdSialia mexicana • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Turdidae • Field Marks: • Deep blue to blue-brown upperparts and underparts • Chestnut breast, and possibly scapulars • Yellow gape • Relatively short wings and tail • Sex: • Males deep blue on head, back, wings, and tail with chestnut breast and scapulars, and blue-gray adomen • Female blue-brown to gray with deep blue on wings and tail, paler chestnut breast, and grayish abdomen • Habitat: • Woodlands and forests, grasslands, agricultural fields • Life History: • Short-distance to partial migrant; occurs year-round in CA

  42. Female Male ©Photo by Bob Steele ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Western BluebirdSialia mexicana • A hard, low whistle sounding like a toy gun: • jewf or pew pew pew

  43. Female ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Male ©Photo by Steve Messick Common YellowthroatGeothlypis trichas • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Parulidae • Field Marks: • Plain olive upperparts • Yellow throat and breast with whitish abdomen • Bright yellow undertail coverts • No wing bars • Sex: • Males have prominent black mask bordered by gray • Females lack mask and have duller yellow underparts • Habitat: • Marshes, riparian woodlands, with thick understory • Life History: • Occurs year-round in CA, though some populations are migratory • Conservation: • CA Species of Special Concern – Saltmarsh subspecies sinuosa only • Causes include loss of tidal marsh habitat in SF Bay area

  44. Female ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Male ©Photo by Steve Messick Common YellowthroatGeothlypis trichas • Musical whistle in repeated phrases • of three to five syllables: • wichety wichety wichety

  45. Female Female ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Male Male ©Photo by Bob Steele ©Photo by Bob Steele Wilson’s WarblerWilsonia pusilla • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Parulidae • Field Marks: • Plain yellowish olive upperparts with yellow underparts • Yellow undertail coverts • Bright yellow supercilium and lores • No wing bars • Sex: • Males have large glossy black cap • Females usually have smaller black caps, mottled with olive • Habitat: Riparian woodlands • Life History: • Neotropical migrant • Frequently flicks and waves tail • Flutters in mid-air while hawking insects

  46. ©Photo by Steve Messick ©Photo by Bob Steele American PipitAnthus rubescens • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Motacillidae • Field Marks: • Gray-brown upperparts with buffy underparts • Underparts vary from heavily streaked to entirely unstreaked • Slender, short, straight bill • White tips on outer rectrices • Pale supercilium • Long, usually dark legs, with long hallux claw • Sex: Monomorphic • Habitat: Marshes and grasslands, especially near coast • Life History: • Nearctic migrant • Ground-dwelling, walking while constantly bobbing tail • Forms large wintering flocks

  47. Female ©Photos by Peter LaTourrette Male Yellow WarblerDendroica petechia • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Parulidae • Field Marks: • Upperparts yellowish-green with bright yellow underparts • Yellow undertail coverts • Indistinct or no wing bars • Yellow on inner webs of rectrices • Sex: • Males brighter yellow with chestnut streaks on breast • Females duller yellow with reduced or absent streaking on breast • Habitat: • Riparian woodlands, associated with willow thickets • Life History: • Long-distance neotropical migrant • Conservation: • CA Species of Special Concern • Causes include loss of riparian habitat and cowbird parasitism

  48. ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette ©Photo by Bob Steele Orange-crowned WarblerVermivora celata • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Parulidae • Field Marks: • Upperparts plain dusky olive-green • Underparts greenish-yellow, faintly streaked • Yellow undertail coverts • No wing bars • Crown with concealed brownish-orange patch • Short dark eye line • Sharply pointed bill • Sex: • Female tends to be duller, with smaller or less distinct crown patch • Habitat: Woodlands, chaparral • Life History: • Migratory, but occurs year round in CA

  49. ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette ©Photo by Bob Steele Orange-crowned WarblerVermivora celata • Fast trill, with last few notes at a lower pitch • Compare Dark-eyed Junco

  50. Male ©Photo by Peter LaTourrette Male ©Photo by Bob Steele Blue GrosbeakPasserina caerulea • Order: Passeriformes • Family: Cardinalidae • Field Marks: • Plumage brown to dark blue all over • Two wide brown to rufous wing bars • Large, heavy bill • Upper mandible black, lower mandible silvery • Sex: • Males blue overall with two wide rufous wing bars • Females gray-brown overall with buffy-brown wing bars, and sometimes scattered blue feathers • Habitat: Woodlands, especially near edges • Life History: • Neotropical migrant • In the southern part of its range, raises two broods per year • Generally scarce and poorly studied