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Chapter 1 (Summary)

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  1. Chapter 1 (Summary) • Drunken Mr. Jones to bed/animals meet in the barn • Major Wishes to pass his wisdom • Talks about miserable lives and manipulation/born as slaves • Could live in luxury given the resources • Use the products of their labors • Dream from the Previous Night • Live free and happy • Animals vs. humans (2 legged walking ‘creatures’) • Once they take the humans they can’t acquire their traits • Ex: live in a house, sleep in beds, drink, smoke, $, clothes, trade (p. 31) • “Beasts of England” ---an animal Utopia • Mr. Jones fires a shotgun and stops the commotion

  2. Chapter 1 (Analysis) • “Beasts of England”- the animals will finally be free from man’s domination—enjoy the fruits of their labors • The song words lead to a ‘false reality’ • (Reality vs. a Dream Utopia) • Major’s simple belief is that ‘Man’ is the only reason for their evil (makes it easy for anyone non human to buy in to the situation • Idea touches on class struggle, surplus value, and domination • Idea is sincere, but it’s only a fantasy—just like . . . • Major states: “All animals are equal” • Lenin dies just as Major-leaving his work unfinished • Ch. 1=Historic to period before and during WWI • Ends with great unrest!

  3. Chapter 2 (Summary) • Napoleon/Snowball description (35) • The Rebellion-Animals take farm and preserve the house • Animalism • Moses-Sugar Candy Mountain • 7 Commandments: • 1. 2 legs is the enemy • 2. 4 legs or wings is a friend • 3. No clothes • 4. No bed • 5. No alcohol • 6. Not kill any other animal • 7. All animals are equal

  4. Chapter 2 (Analysis) • Russian Revolution Becomes very clear • Manor Farm- Part feudal, Part capitalist = Russia • Major represents Marx’s philosophy of communism, and Lenin who enacted it = Animalism • Animals=working class (esp. Boxer and Clover) • Pigs = intelligentsia (organized and controlled the Rev.) • Squealer = Propaganda • Moses = Russian Orthodox Church • Mollie = Bourgeoisie (Luxuries) • Russia began with noble ideas including moral dignity and equality-quickly gone on Animal Farm • Orwell’s description of pre-rebellion misery-social inequality and mistreatment of workers

  5. Chapter 3 (Summary) • “4 legs good, 2 legs bad” - • Pigs take charge/superiority- • take the milk • Raise the pups • A lot of work is done- BOXER “I will/must work harder” • Flag with hoof and horn (Russian Flag) • Snowball and Napoleon fight • Pigs take human ways • Socialists goals became meaningless tools used for control • 4 legs/2 legs—what about wings? • Dog Army • Manipulation by Squealer-(p52 or last page of Chapter 3)

  6. Chapter 3 (Analysis) • Boxer’s (People’s) blind faith in the system • Imbalance of knowledge and literacy • Pigs/Stalin-sole guardians of Animal Farm/Russian principals • 7 Commandments • Antihuman directive (no clothes), moral values (no kill other animal), utopian ideas (all animals equal) • 4 legs good/2 legs bad=not part of the above ideals • Propaganda was used to ignore their own unhappiness/shift focus • Squealer = Propaganda to control the people • Satire – “Good of the State” –emphasizes Russia’s own downfall-pokes fun

  7. Chapter 4 (Summary) • The Short Version • Battle of Cowshed • Medals: Animal Hero First Class • Snowball and Boxer

  8. Chapter 4 (Analysis) • Allusion: Julius Caesar (Snowball studying JC’s campaigns) • Russian Interwar Period • Trotsky: In order for Communism to work, it has to be global • Domino Effect = Non communists become communist • Pres. Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson used this to justify military involvement in Turkey, Greece, and Vietnam • Rumors spread of Russia • People fight but don’t understand what their fighting for • Their own oppression = Irony • Orwell was (perhaps) denouncing Comm. & non-Comm. • Mr. Jones = Irresponsible/Neglect • Mr. P = Doesn’t do anything

  9. Chapter 5 (Summary) • Mollie decides to change sides • Napoleon/Snowball argue a lot • Each campaign for supporters • Windmill plans completed – debate over the project • Snowball is attacked and ousted • Napoleon takes power (Pig Power) • Boxer adds to his ‘catch phrase’“I will work harder” • “Napoleon is always right”

  10. Chapter 5 (Analysis) • Napoleon rises as did Stalin • Snowball/Trotsky is banished • Stalin has his own secret police (intelligentsia) = Dogs • 3rd World Country (p64)- Build technology/electricity • Stalin first balked at it, then adopted it as his own idea • Orwell was part of a Trotskyist group in the late 1930’s during the Spanish Civil War • Could be why Snowball is looked at in a positive manner • Importance of technological advances in Russia is essential • Much effort was put into the overall change • As previously mention-Stalin shunned it at 1st, then took it as his own

  11. Chapter 6 (Summary) • Work weeks were now 60hr/wk and work on Sundays • Food rations were cut • Animals eager to take more work b/c it’s for their own benefit • Mr. Whimper-Human solicitor introduced • Used to obtain outside goods needed (iron, nails, paraffin oil) • Pigs now live and sleep in farm house • Commandments changed • No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets • Storm destructs windmill • Supposed work of Snowball • Snowball is given a death sentence

  12. Chapter 6 (Analysis) • Government Oppression (not just in Russia) • Overworked working class • Government justified luxuries • Propaganda is used to cover up mistakes • Governments tend to blame others for their own deficiencies and wrong doings to keep their own standing • Ex: Communist Russia vs. Trotskyism • Ex: U.S.A. vs. Communism • By shifting the blame it is easy to manipulate • Orwell’s idea: Tyranny is Cyclical • More Power = More Corrupt = Become what is was in 1st place • Pigs evolve into grotesque human beings-increased resemblance of humans

  13. Chapter 7 (Summary) • Harsh winter w/ food shortage – Animals are misled • Humans don’t believe Snowball ruined wall-rebuilt at 3’ thick • Egg shortage- increased export/morally wrong • Hens rebel and 9 die • Snowball’s supposed visits to farm- Everything blamed on him • ‘Tied’ to Pinchfield (associate of Mr. Jones) • Battle of Cowshed bravery taken away and used against him • Napoleon’s battle bravery is hyped up • Squealer’s persuasion makes them believe • Napoleon stages a purge and takes more power • Pigs are forced to falsely confess to conspiracy w/ Snowball • They are said to be ‘Trotskyists’ and immediately killed • Boxer stands up for the animals-Napoleon immediately stops Boxer • Egg rebellion confession- 3 more hens killed

  14. Chapter 7 (Summary Cont.) • Boxer’s explanation of problem at hand • The fault is our own = WORK HARDER • Clover wonders how farm could have gotten like it is • Animals not smart enough to figure it out • Squealer: “No more beasts of England” • Song only applies to the rebellion-no need for rebellion now • New song with no inspiration • “Animal Farm. . .”- Glorifies the situation

  15. Chapter 7 (Analysis) • Stalin’s 5 year plan for agriculture resulted in starvation of millions • Industrial production was also down • Violent tactics of oppressive governments • Massive class divisions in egalitarian/true communist society • Stalin also had ‘show trials’ (trials w/ preset outcome) • Forced people to admit Trotskyism • People tortured until admission then executed • Stalin kept a common enemy- Trotsky • Create fear for people-no one challenged his rule • Manipulated statistics- illusion that all is good/better • Fear installed b/c people believe propaganda • An indestructible dictatorship formed-far from communism

  16. Chapter 8 (Summary) • No kill commandment is changed to “. . . w/out cause” • Animals work harder to rebuild windmill • Very cold winter with famine • Napoleon takes title of “Leader” • Minimus writes a poem on barn praising Napoleon • Controversy between Frederick and Pilkington w/ firewood • Windmill is finished-Mr. F. and men blow it up • Several animals are killed/Boxer is injured • Pigs get drunk • Squealer caught w/ paint brush (changing commandments) • Animals not smart enough to figure it out • Alcohol Commandment Changed to “. . . In excess”

  17. Chapter 8 (Analysis) • Overall idea of manipulated rules and govt. to benefit the politically and militaristic powers • Minimus’s Poem: great irony/satire of patriotic rhetoric • Creates a misdirection (propaganda) for the public • Pilkington vs. Frederick Incident • Russia/Stalin’s back and forth nature of siding with Germany and then the Allies at the outset of WWII • @ last moment, Stalin signs a non-aggression pact with Hitler • Hitler (Frederick) betrays his word and invades Western Russia killing 25 million Russians and destroying much of the infrastructure built up during the Russian Revolution • This is known as the Battle of Stalingrad

  18. Chapter 9 (Summary) • Start to rebuild the Windmill • Boxer grows weak • Food Shortage Evident (but not for Pigs and Dogs) • They say it’s still better than Mr. Jones’s era • Napoleon has 31 piglets w/ 4 sows-builds a schoolhouse • Spontaneous demonstrations promoting animal farm • Animal farm declared a Republic- Napoleon named Pres. • Snowball has rumored to say “Long live humanity” during the battle of cowshed • Sugar Candy Mountain stories started again by Moses • Boxer fails and collapses • Arranged for ambulance (Glue Factory) • Boxer announced as incurable and had died (False info)

  19. Chapter 9 (Analysis) • Blatant downfall of Animal Farm/Russia • Boxer’s death is ironic • He worked for the good of all, but is sold for the good of a few • Boxer is sold for alcohol • His death breaks a lot of commandments • Death in a Glue Factory increases the dramatic power of Orwell’s words • Russian administration exhausted its worker resources and then discarded them • Return of Moses means shift of focus of working class • Stalin brought back the Russian Orthodox Church after WWII • Spontaneous Demonstrations= Ironic b/c they weren’t spontaneous, they were all planned out for propaganda

  20. Chapter 10 (Summary) • Many years have now passed (Dead: Muriel, Pincher, Bluebell, Jessie, Mr. Jones, . . .) • Windmill is now used for corn = more $ • Pigs and dogs are still in luxury • Other animals still accept the goals of the original Rebellion • This is a world free of humans with equality for animals • Squealer is now walking on his hind legs only • Sheep adopt the maxim: “4 legs good, 2 legs better” • Only 1 commandment is left! • “All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others” • Napoleon smokes pipe, others read, use radio/phone, wear clothes • Napoleon and Pilkington toast each other- No more Comrade • Name changed back to Manor Farm • Card Game-Ace of Spades played at the same time (Nap/Pilk) • No longer distinguish the card players from the humans/pigs

  21. Chapter 10 (Analysis) • Totalitarian Communism (controlled by the state/dictator) • No socialism or utopia at all • Napoleon B. (France) used to be thought of as great during his conquest until he crowned himself emperor of France • Instead of abolishing aristocracy, he formed it around himself • Hope is help until the end-provides dramatic contrast • Original ideas by Major/Marx = Dream/Philosophy • Very shocking language- evolution of events • Cooperation of Russia and the West during WWII is evident • Quarrel over what both desire but can’t have is evident • WORLD DOMINATION • Banquet shows coop w/ Eng./U.S.A./Russia during WWII • Stalin dies in 1953