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Bell’s Palsy, Muscular Dystrophies -Erb’s Palsy. Victor Politi, M.D., FACP Medical Director, SVCMC, School of Allied Health Professions, Physician Assistant Program. Facial Nerve. 7th cranial nerve supplies all the muscles concerned with facial expression

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bell s palsy muscular dystrophies erb s palsy

Bell’s Palsy, Muscular Dystrophies -Erb’s Palsy

Victor Politi, M.D., FACP

Medical Director, SVCMC, School of Allied Health Professions, Physician Assistant Program

facial nerve
Facial Nerve
  • 7th cranial nerve supplies all the muscles concerned with facial expression
  • Small sensory component (the nervus intermedius of Wrisberg); conveys taste sensation from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
  • Motor nucleus of 7th nerve lies anterior and lateral to the abducens nucleus
facial nerve3
Facial nerve
  • A complete interruption of the facial nerve at the stylomastoid forearm paralyzes all muscles of facial expression
    • corner of mouth droops
    • crease and skin folds effaced
    • forehead un-furrowed
    • eyelids will not close
facial nerve4
Facial Nerve
  • Food collects between the teeth and lips, and saliva may dribble from the corner of the mouth
  • The patient typically c/o a heaviness or numbness in the face
Facial palsy is usually unilateral and may be due to trauma, surgical intervention, tumor, stroke or infection of the 7th cranial nerve
Edema may play a part leading to compression of nerve fibers, with resulting acute unilateral paralysis of facial muscles
It disproportionately attacks pregnant women and people who have diabetes, influenza, a cold or some other upper respiratory ailment
The common cold sore virus, herpes simplex, and other herpes viruses are the likely cause of many cases of Bell’s palsy

In addition to one-sided facial paralysis with possible inability to close the eye, symptoms of Bell’s palsy may include pain, tearing, drooling, hypersensitivity to sound in the affected ear, and impairment of taste

The symptoms usually disappear spontaneously but residual facial immobility and lip drooping may persist
bell s palsy
Bell’s Palsy
  • In general, the prognosis for Bell’s Palsy is very good
  • With or without treatment most patients begin to get significantly better within 2 weeks
bell s palsy18
Bell’s Palsy
  • For some, however, the symptoms may last longer
  • In a few cases, the symptoms may never completely dissapear
  • Studies have shown that steroids are probably the most effective treatment
  • Acyclovir combined with prednisone is possibly effective in improving facial function
  • Other treatments are usually aimed at protection of the eye from drying during sleep
  • Analgesic for pain relief
  • Corticosteroid drug to help reduce inflammation
  • Massage of weakened muscles
  • Splint to prevent drooping of lower part of face
Muscular dystrophy refers to a group of disorders that have little in common except for their name and the fact that they are inherited
progressive muscular dystrophies
Progressive Muscular Dystrophies
  • Congenital
  • Distal
  • Scapuloperoneal
progressive muscular dystrophies24
Progressive Muscular Dystrophies
  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (pseudohypertrophic)
  • Becker’s (benign pseudohypertrophic)
  • Myotonic
  • Facioscapulohumeral
  • Limb-Girdle (may include several disorders)
  • Oculopharyngeal
duchenne muscular dystrophy
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
  • X-linked recessive
  • Affects males almost exclusively
  • Onset by age 5
  • Progressive weakness of girdle muscles
  • Inability to walk after age 12
  • Kyphoscoliosis
  • Respiratory failure - 2nd-3rd decade
  • Other organ system involvement- cardiomyopathy/ mental impairment
becker s muscular dystrophy
Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy
  • Less severe form of x-linked recessive dystrophy
  • presentation similar to Duchenne’s except time course slower
  • onset early to late childhood (not usually recognized until age 5)
  • walking continues beyond age 15 - sometimes into 4th decade
  • Calf muscle enlargement - prominent
  • Death from complications similar to Duchenne’s may occur after age 40
facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy
  • Autosomal dominant disorder
  • Slowly progressive disorder
  • Affects males and females equally
  • Extremely variable in severity
  • Most common in 3rd or 4th decade, but may start at any age
  • Cases starting earlier in life - worse prognosis
facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy29
Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy
  • Some patients may remain asymptomatic throughout life
  • Weakness of facial, shoulder girdle, proximal arm muscles and foot dorsiflexion weakness
  • Other organ system involvement - HTN
oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy
Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy
  • Autosomal dominant (French-Canadian or Hispanic background)
  • Onset in 5th to 6th decade of life
  • Slowly progressive weakness of extraocular, eyelid, face, and pharyngeal muscles
  • Cricopharyngeal achalasia
  • Other organ system involvement-cardiomyopathy
scapuloperoneal dystrophy
Scapuloperoneal Dystrophy
  • Autosomal dominant
  • Onset 3rd to 5th decade of life
  • Progressive shoulder girdle and foot dorsiflex or weakness
  • Other organ system involvement - cardiomyopathy
limb girdle dystrophy
Limb-Girdle dystrophy
  • Autosomal recessive inheritance
  • Onset early childhood to adult
  • slowly progressive weakness of shoulder and hip girdle muscles
  • Other organ system involvement - cardiomyopathy
limb girdle dystrophy33
Limb-Girdle Dystrophy
  • Proximal muscle weakness may begin in either the legs or the arms but usually progresses to all extremities
  • Weakness may begin before age 5 or as late as the 3rd decade of life
  • Serum CK is elevated
  • EMG pattern that of myopathy
  • Muscle biopsy shows active myopathy but nonspecific
physical therapy and orthopedic procedures may help to counteract deformities or contractures
Physical therapy and orthopedic procedures may help to counteract deformities or contractures
brachial plexus injuries
Brachial Plexus Injuries
  • A brachial plexus injury (Erb’s palsy) is a nerve injury
  • The nerves that are damaged control muscles in the shoulder, arm, or hand and any or all of these muscles may be paralyzed
brachial plexus injury
Brachial Plexus Injury
  • The brachial plexus is a network of nerves, conducting signals from the spine to the arm and the hand
  • Injury can occur at any time, most brachial plexus injuries happen during birth
    • about 1-2 babies in 1,000 suffer brachial plexus injury at birth, about 1 in 10 of these need treatment
    • treatment can consist of exercise, therapy, surgery or any combination thereof
brachial plexus injuries40
Brachial Plexus Injuries
  • Four types of nerve injury
    • Avulsion - the nerve is torn from the spine
    • Rupture- nerve torn, but not where it attaches to the spine
    • Neuroma- scar tissue forms around injury
    • Praxis- nerve damaged but not torn