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OBJECTIVES FOR ECOSYSTEM PROTECTION Maintain Predator/prey relationships Maintain Energy/flow balance Maintain Habitat and Diversity. ECOSYSTEM DEFINITION

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Ecosystem Processes


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    1. OBJECTIVES FOR ECOSYSTEM PROTECTION Maintain Predator/prey relationships Maintain Energy/flow balance Maintain Habitat and Diversity ECOSYSTEM DEFINITION Populations and communities of interacting organisms and physical environment with characteristic trophic structure and material (energy) cycles Ecosystem Processes

    2. Ecosystem Measures and Influences Gear

    3. CLIMATE and FISHING Objectives for Ecosystem Protection: • Maintain predator-prey relationships • pelagic forage availability • spatial/temporal conc. of fishery impact on forage fish • removals of top predators • introduction of non-native species • Maintain diversity • species diversity • functional (trophic, structural habitat) diversity • genetic diversity • Maintain energy flow and balance • human-induced energy redirection • system impacts attributable to energy removal

    4. OBJECTIVE: MAINTAIN PREDATOR/PREY RELATIONSHIPS SUBOBJECTIVE1: Sustain top predator populations THRESHOLD: Catch levels high enough to cause the biomass of one or more top level predator species to fall below minimum biologically acceptable limits INDICATORS: Population status of top predator species Bycatch levels of sensitive top predators that lack population estimates (sharks, birds) Trophic level of the catch Ecosystem Impacts Assessment Framework: Objectives, sub-objectives, ecosystem indicators

    5. Effects Analysis

    6. Effects Analysis (cont.)

    7. Effects Analysis (cont.)

    8. MANAGEMENT INDICATORS Time trends in bottom trawl effort Total catch and trophic level of catch Seabird bycatch and fishing effort Amount and composition of non-target fish species in catch

    9. ECOSYSTEM STATUS INDICATORS Seabird population trends Fish community size spectrum Environmental fluctuations Population trends of non-target fish species Status of structural habitat biota

    10. CLIMATE and FISHING Objectives for Ecosystem Protection: • Maintain predator-prey relationships • pelagic forage availability • spatial/temporal conc. of fishery impact on forage fish • removals of top predators • introduction of non-native species • Maintain diversity • species diversity • functional (trophic, structural habitat) diversity • genetic diversity • Maintain energy flow and balance • human-induced energy redirection • system impacts attributable to energy removal