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The Safe and Healthy School: Issues to Consider When Planning School Construction and Renovation August 26, 2009. Who we are. Mr. Larry Morgan, Director Chris Cosper, AIA, Assistant Director. Our Vision.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

The Safe and Healthy School:

Issues to Consider When Planning School Construction and Renovation

August 26, 2009

slide2

Who we are

  • Mr. Larry Morgan, Director
  • Chris Cosper, AIA, Assistant Director
slide3

Our Vision

  • The Educational Design Institute – in collaboration with students, parents, educators, school administrators, school boards and communities – will promote and encourage the creation of safe, accessible, flexible, and developmentally-appropriate learner-centered environments that help students learn and teachers teach.
slide4

Our Goals

  • Establish EDI as a source for school planning and design issues through regional workshops, conferences, and publications.
  • Establish EDI as a collaborative partner with the Mississippi Department of Education Office of Safe and Orderly Schools and progressive Mississippi architecture and engineering design firms.
  • Promote and update the Mississippi School Design Guidelines, which contain information concerning the design, construction, and maintenance of safe and effective school facilities.
slide6

Design does matter

  • Six key benefits to properly designed buildings:
    • Better student performance
    • Increased average daily attendance
    • Increased teacher satisfaction and retention
    • Reduced operating costs
    • A positive influence on the environment, and
    • Increased opportunities for using the facility itself as a teaching tool
    • Source: Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC)
slide7

What does EDI do?

  • Provide training on the use of the Mississippi School Design Guidelines (MSDG)
  • Conduct facility assessments
  • Suggest ways to improve facilities, including master planning studies and preliminary designing
  • In conjunction with Safe and Orderly Schools, conduct safety audits
  • Keep school districts informed concerning K-12 education design trends
slide8

Mississippi School

Design Guidelines

slide9

Food Preparation / Cafeteria

  • Switching to healthier foods does not require many changes to kitchens or cafeterias.
  • Some limited physical plant decisions:
    • Replacing fryers with “Combi” ovens (i.e combination oven/steamers)
    • Number and length of serving lines (to provide variety)
    • Drink coolers
slide10

Combi Oven/Steamers

  • Looks like a convection oven
  • Some early ones were difficult to use, but newer ones have better controls
  • Food service vendors are providing meals designed for Combi units
  • Gas (must be under hood) or three-phase electric
  • Can be expensive
    • Grants have been available
slide13

Elementary School P.E. Facility

  • Physical education class
  • Other activities as space and schedule permit
    • May include stage for programs
slide16

Multi-Purpose P.E. Facility

Rubberized floor generally considered best multi-purpose surface

slide17

High School / Middle School Gymnasium

  • Physical education class
  • Mississippi public school team sports
    • Basketball
    • Volleyball
slide19

Playgrounds

  • Safe surfaces
  • Clear boundaries and sight lines
  • Shade
  • Access to water
slide20

Playgrounds – Shade

Photos by BYO Playground

www.byoplayground.com

slide22

Playgrounds – Shade

Photos by Landscape Structures

www.playlsi.com

slide23

Other Wellness Options

  • Walking track
  • School employee wellness center
slide24

Security Theory

  • Deterrence – discourage unauthorized actions
  • Detection – recognize unauthorized actions
  • Delay – slow unauthorized actions
  • Response – react to unauthorized actions

From July 2009 School Planning & Management

slide25

Security – Safe Schools

  • SS1 – Access Control
  • SS2 – Natural Surveillance
  • SS3 – Territorial Reinforcement
  • SS4 – Natural Disaster Safe Zones
  • SS5 – Secure Traffic and Parking
slide26

SS1 – Access Control

  • Control pedestrian entry
  • Control vehicular entry
  • Minimize entrances
  • Control roof access
  • Eliminate hiding places
slide28

SS2 – Natural Surveillance

  • Main School Entrance
  • Parking Areas
  • Hallway Surveillance
  • School Restrooms
  • Cafeteria
  • Playgrounds
  • Student Gathering Spaces
slide29

Remove Visual Obstacles

  • Remove visual obstructions, where possible
    • For example, limb trees to 8’-0” minimum
  • Consider low walls and shrubs
  • Use fences that can be seen through
  • Use CCTV where necessary
slide30

SS4 – Natural Surveillance

  • Main School Entrance
  • Parking Areas
  • Hallway Surveillance
  • School Restrooms
  • Cafeteria
  • Playgrounds
  • Student Gathering Spaces
slide31

SS4 – Natural Disaster Safe Zones

  • Hurricane – wind and storm surge
  • Tornado and other wind events
  • Hail and lightning
  • Flooding
  • Forest fire
slide32

SS5 – Secure Traffic and Parking

  • Define parking zones
  • Consider surveillance of traffic and parking areas
  • Use safe surfaces and paving techniques
slide33

Safe Routes to School

  • SR2S Funds available
  • Community Block Grants also available
  • Repair sidewalks, build sidewalks, route buses away from pedestrians, and other improvements as necessary
  • Improve fitness and air quality
slide34

School Nurse

Photos by Methacton School District

www.methacton.org

slide35

School Nurse’s Duties

  • Immunizations
  • Vision and hearing screenings
  • Providing first aid for minor and major physical injuries
  • Coordinating student referrals with community agencies
  • Notifying parents of children’s health
  • Dispensing student medication
  • Acting as an instructor or resource for health education
slide36

Nurse’s Office – Elementary School

  • Waiting area
  • Office for nurse
    • With record storage
  • Rest area with beds
    • One cot for every 300 students, can be separated by curtains
  • Consultation office
  • Examination room
  • Restroom(s)
slide38

Nurse’s Office – High School

  • Waiting area
  • Office for nurse
    • With record storage
  • Separate rest area for each sex
    • One cot for every 300 students, can be separated by curtains
  • Consultation office
  • Examination room
  • Separate restrooms for each sex
slide40

Nurse’s Office Features

  • Internal hallways should be 6’-0” wide minimum to accommodate gurneys
  • Doors to the exam room and to the exterior should be 4’-0” wide with offset hinges
  • Ideally, emergency access is provided directly to the exterior
  • HVAC system should be separate from other school HVAC systems
slide41

From MSDG

  • Ability to Quarantine
  • Distinct Entry
  • Easy Emergency Access
  • Near Administration
  • Removed from the Learning Environment
slide42

Nurse’s Office Summary

  • Privacy and confidentiality are primary concerns
  • Easy to clean and sanitize
  • Comfortable – natural lighting, low noise levels, soothing colors
slide43

Drinking Fountains

  • Plumbing Code will dictate minimum number based on school square footage
  • Should be convenient and accessible
  • Code compliance can be tricky
slide44

HVAC

  • Stands for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning
  • Modern expectations of thermal comfort are high
  • Largely responsible for Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
  • Complex topic
slide45

HVAC – Zoning

  • Zoning – how a building is divided
  • Essentially, each zone has its own thermostat
  • Ideally, each classroom should be its own zone
slide46

Lighting

  • Daylighting
  • Artificial lighting
    • Quality
    • Quantity
    • Fixtures
slide47

Daylighting

  • Free
  • Shown to improve test scores
  • Heat gain (or loss) is an issue
slide48

Artificial lighting

  • Source
  • Fixture
  • Lamp (i.e. bulb)
slide49

Quality

  • Color temperature
  • Color Rendering Index (CRI)
slide50

Lighting quantity

  • lux fc
  • Support Spaces 50 5
  • Corridors 100 10
  • Foyers, Dining Spaces 200 20
  • Libraries, Classrooms 300 30
  • Offices, Kitchens 500 50
  • Drafting Rooms 750 75
  • Electronic Assembly 1000 100
  • Highest Level Tasks 2000 200
slide52

Acoustics

  • Clarity of speech
  • Noise control
  • Architectural acoustics for performance
slide53

Clarity of speech

  • Direct sound path
  • Reflected sound (i.e. reverberation)
  • Interfering noise
slide54

Noise control

  • Within a space
  • From one space to another
slide55

Architectural acoustics

  • For performance spaces
  • Ideal reverb times vary with type of music
  • The ideal reverb time for speech is less than that for music

Photo by BAi Consultants

www.baiaustin.com

slide56

EDI Website & Blog

www.edi.msstate.edu