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Russian Revolution World War I was initially greeted with enthusiasm in Russia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Russian Revolution World War I was initially greeted with enthusiasm in Russia. Tsar Nicholas was dominated by his wife, Alexandria She was born in Germany but raised in England she hated democratic government.

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slide5
their son was a hemophiliac and could only be helped by a travelling preacher named Gregori who's nickname was Rasputin---the Depraved
slide6

there were rumour that the Tsarina and Rasputin were having an affair

Rasputin became a fixture in the Romanov court

any wrongs that Rasputin committed, the Tsarina would deny

slide9

September 1915, Tsar Nicholas made two critical errors that were to prove fatal to the Romanov Dynasty: he assumed personal command of the army and he dismissed the Duma (Russian Parliament)

slide10

With Nicholas in charge of the army, political authority came to be dominated by the Tsarina and Rasputin; only those most loyal to the monarchy were appointed to government positions

slide12

The Russian military was poorly led, ill equipped and suffered staggering losses on the battlefield

Between 1914 and 1916, two million Russian soldiers died

slide14

In December 1916, with Russia in deep crisis and increased suspicion on the German born Tsarina, a group of conspirators had Rasputin murdered to save the monarchy

slide15

In March 1917, strikes broke out in Petrograd and Nicholas ordered the army to disperse the crowds by shooting if necessary; soon many of the troops went over to the civilian side

slide17

The Duma, which had been dissolved, met anyway on March 12, 1917 establishing a provisional government and called on the Tsar to abdicate; Tsar Nicholas abdicated on March 15; as he was not deliberately overthrown, there was no real revolution

slide19
Moderate Constitutional Democrats established the Provisional Government that represented a middle class and liberal aristocratic minority
slide21

Their agenda was based on 19th century liberalism: freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and civil liberties

That this Provisional Government wanted to carry on the war was its own undoing

slide22
The Western Allies put tremendous pressure on Russia to stay in the war, even promising a warm water port if they remained in the fight
slide23

The Provisional Government also had to deal with the councils of peasants, workers, and soldiers deputies or SOVIETS

The soviets represented the more radical interests of the lower classes

slide25

The socialists in Russia were also divided into the more moderate Mensheviks who espoused western style democracy and the more radical Bolsheviks led by Lenin who advocated the implementation of the political philosophy of Karl Marx

slide26

The Bolsheviks became the party of violent revolution

When the Provisional Government gained power in Russia, Lenin was returned to Russia from his German exile with the assistance of the German High Command—he was sent back deliberately to cause revolution and to destabilize the government

slide30
Lenin realized that the soviets were ready made to implement his plan and so ordered his people to infiltrate their ranks
slide31

With the Bolsheviks firmly in control of the soviets by July 1917, it is little wonder that the Russian army disintegrated when a new offensive was planned

slide32
On the night of November 6-7, 1917 Bolshevik forces seized the Winter Palace, seat of the Provisional Government
slide34

Lenin quickly proclaimed his program of an immediate end to the war, redistribution of land to the peasants, the transfer of factories from the owners to the workers, and the control of government by the Soviets

slide37

Once in power, Lenin quickly declared land nationalized and turned it over to the local soviets; this immediately increased peasant support for the party

slide38

Lenin also agreed to the humiliating terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk to get out of the war; Lenin had no army to fight the war and any attempt to continue the war would topple his government

slide42

In the summer of 1918, Allied forces occupied Archangel and Vladivostok purportedly to protect war supplies kept there, but their real purpose was to help topple the communist government and bring Russia back into the war

slide44

In the civil war that ensued, the opposition Whites had little support from the West and had little cause to fight and was not united in its efforts

slide45

The communist Red Army had a single purpose and the added support of nationalism on their side owing to the Allied invasion

Through the secret police or Cheka, the communists were able to use terror against their enemies

slide47
By 1920, the Reds had won the war and regained control of the country largely through the organizational genius of Leon Trotsky
the red army also controlled the major cities and the interior lines of support and communication
The Red Army also controlled the major cities and the interior lines of support and communication
slide54

Patriotism also played a key role in supporting the Reds; with over 100 000 foreign troops in their country there was substantial support for the Bolshevik cause

slide55
Allied troops were eventually withdrawn as it became evident that the Bolsheviks could not be dislodged from power
slide59

the Poles demanded their historic national boundaries of 1772; the Russians refused to cede any more land which resulted in war between the two countries in 1920

slide60

weak from the civil war, the Russians and Poles reached an agreement on a new boundary that was east of the Curzon Line but not as far as the 1772 boundary