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INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY. Definition & Goals. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes What are the GOALS of Psychology ? – Describe Explain Predict Control. Origins in Critical Thinking. Introspection-

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definition goals
Definition & Goals
  • The scientific study of behavior and mental

processes

  • What are the GOALS of Psychology ? –
    • Describe
    • Explain
    • Predict
    • Control
origins in critical thinking
Origins in Critical Thinking
  • Introspection-
  • Structuralism - Sensations & Perceptions
  • Functionalism – Adaptive Functions = Mind
  • Freud – Unconscious, early events
  • Gestalt – Perceptions -> analysis of the whole pattern
  • Behaviorism – Scientific, objective analysis of observable behaviors – environment shapes
  • Humanism - Maslow– Hierarchy of Needs
what types of degrees are there
What types of degrees are there?
  • Bachelor’s (B.A.) or (B.S.)
  • Master’s of Arts (M.A.)
  • Master’s of Science (M.S.)
  • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
  • Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
  • Medical Doctor (M.D.)
specialty areas in psychology
Specialty Areas in Psychology
  • Social & Personality –

(Clinical Psy)

  • Developmental –

Pregnancy to Death

specialty areas in psychology1
Specialty Areas in Psychology
  • Experimental –

Labs; learning/ experiments

  • Biological –

Genetics/physiology

specialty areas in psychology2
Specialty Areas in Psychology
  • Cognitive -

Information Processing

  • Psychometric – Measurement
specialty areas in psychology3
Specialty Areas in Psychology
  • Industrial/Organizational (Ergonomics) –
  • School – Combination of many of the above
where do psychologists work
Where do Psychologists Work?
  • Private Practice / Therapy / Counselors –
  • Academic Settings/Universities Secondary Schools
  • Mixed othersettings – sports,forensics, HRD
  • Industrial
how do psychologists answer questions
How do Psychologists Answer Questions?
  • Survey –
    • Efficient but may yield bias or inaccurate info
  • Case Study –
    • In-depth info versus limited generalizability
  • Experiment - manipulate variables; cause &

effect

how do psychologists answer questions1
How do Psychologists Answer Questions?
  • Interviews –
  • Standardized Tests –
how do psychologists answer questions2
How do Psychologists Answer Questions?
  • Lab Experiment –
  • Animal Model –
  • Naturalistic Setting –
what might affect data collection
What might affect data collection?
  • Confounding variables –
  • Self-fulfilling Prophecy –
what might affect data collection1
What might affect data collection?
  • Placebo –
    • Pill or intervention with no true identified effects
  • Placebo Effect-
    • Change in the subject’s behavior due to the belief of being treated
what is correlational research
What is Correlational Research?
  • Illustrates an Association or Relationship
    • Perfect Positive = + 1.00
    • Positive - + 0.01 to + 0.99
    • Zero - 0.00 (no relationship)
    • Negative - - 0.01 to - 0.99
    • Perfect Negative - - 1.00

***NOT CAUSE & EFFECT ***

example correlations

Perfect positive

correlation (+1.00)

No relationship (0.00)

Perfect negative

correlation (-1.00)

ExampleCorrelations
what is the scientific process
What is the Scientific Process?
  • Problem –
  • Hypothesis –
  • Data Collection,
  • Statistical Analysis,
  • Discussion
what are variables
What are Variables?
  • Independent Variable (IV) – What is being controlled or manipulated by the researcher
  • Dependent Variable (DV) - Behaviors being measured/affected by the treatment
how are subjects grouped
How are subjects grouped?
  • Experimental Group – Those who receive intervention or treatment
  • Control Group – No treatment group
what is a double blind study
What is a Double-blind Study?
  • Double-blind study
    • ADHD Ritalin Trial (Example)
what are the guidelines for human experimentation
What are the guidelines for human experimentation?
  • Code of Ethics
    • Approval, consent, no harm, debriefing
  • Role of Deception – must be justified, no impact and inform after
what are the guidelines for animal experimentation
What are the guidelines for animal experimentation?

Much lower #’s than those consumed

Major medical advances

  • Ethical & Supervised by Veterinarians