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Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program . Janol Montroy Walden University. Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program.

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Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

Janol Montroy

Walden University

prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

The impact of a teen pregnancy affects the lives of the mother, baby, father, families and communities. The teenage mother is faced with many health care issues and challenges. Low socioeconomic status, decreased education level with limited opportunities to finish high school, resulting poor job and career availability. A repeat teen pregnancy compounds these issues. A home visitation program utilizing public health, social work, school-based, faith-based and volunteer programs will work with the teen mother on an individual basis. Optimizing the quality of life for teen mothers and their children is the goal of the prevention of repeat teen pregnancy home visitation program.

prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program1
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

BACKGROUND

  • U.S. teen birth rate in 2009 was 39.1 births per 1,000 (ages 15-19 years). (CDC, 2011).
  • U.S. leads in number of teen pregnancies when compared Canada and Great Britain (Porter & Holness, 2011).
  • In 2004, the cost to federal, state and local taxpayers related to teenage childbirth was approximately $9.1billion dollars. (The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, 2010).
  • A repeat pregnancy is noted to occur 500 times more often with a teen mother. (Porter & Holness, 2011).
prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program2
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

Risk factors for teen mothers and their babies

Increased incidence of:

  • Low birth weight
  • Infection and neonatal death
  • SIDS
  • Well being of mother threatened with medical and social problems
  • Social issues
  • Low socioeconomic status
  • Low education for the mother
  • Substance abuse
  • Single parent families
  • Possibility for sub standard prenatal care (Porter & Holness, 2011)
prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program3
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

Risk factors for a child of a teen mother

  • Health and chronic illness problems
  • Increased chance of becoming a teen parent (Herrman, 2010) (as cited in Hoffman, 2006)
  • Greater risk of homelessness, incarceration, dropping out of high school
  • Increased risk of being abused (Herrman, 2010) (as cited in Healthy Teen Network, 2007).
prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program4
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

To assist teen mothers to achieve their personal goals and to overcome poverty it is important to have a minimum of two years between pregnancies (Porter & Holness, 2011) (as cited in Steven-Simon, Kelly, and Kulick, 2001).

prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program5
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

INTERVENTIONS

  • Theories/Teen pregnancy research
  • Social-Cognitive-Ecological Theories
  • Developmental Theories
  • Resilience Theory (Porter & Holness, 2011)
  • Home visitation
  • School-based programs
  • Community-based programs
  • Contraception
  • Abstinence
prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program6
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

Proposed plan includes the "Resilience-Recoil-Rebound Theory of Teen Pregnancy Prevention (RRRTTPP)." (Porter & Holness, 2011, p. 370).

  • Resilience
    • The ability to "bounce back" when faced with a challenging experience in life (Porter & Holness, 2011) (as cited in American Psychological Association [APA], 2011; Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000).
    • Reflected in coping skills when faced with pregnancy
  • Recoil-Rebound
    • Refers to recovery when faced with a setback in life with optimism and hope for the future
  • Strong support systems are needed to reinforce resilience in teen mothers at risk for repeat pregnancy
    • Family
    • Peer groups
    • School
    • Church
    • Community
prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program7
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

HOME VISITATION

  • Begin as early in the pregnancy as possible
  • Continue after birth of baby and through two years of age
  • Follow Olds Model
  • Establish a trust relationship
  • Visit weekly for the first month
  • Every other week until delivery (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008)
  • After delivery, resume home visits at eight weeks, every other week through the child's second birthday
  • Certified Nurse Midwives visit for the first eight weeks
prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program8
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

COLLABORATION WITH THE COMMUNITY

Salt Lake Valley/University of Utah Teen Mother and Child Program

Identify teen moms to be included in the program:

  • Public health nurse
  • Trust relationship established
  • Monitor and assess on an individual basis
  • Pretest and posttest given to teen mother
  • Assess resilience
  • Educational goals
  • Repeat pregnancy concerns
  • Family structure
  • Individual needs and circumstances

Social work:

  • Social worker
  • Establish a trust relationship
  • Assist with additional programs/referrals as needed
prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program9
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

School-based program

  • Valley High Teen Mom Program

Faith-based program

  • LDS Family Services
  • Catholic Community Services
  • Additional Services available

Community-based program

  • Utah Parents as Teachers
  • Teen Mother program
prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program10
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

TRAINING

  • Specific to the RRRTTPP theory
  • Nurses, social workers, teachers and volunteers
  • Olds model proposes required training for nurses regarding the goals of the program, techniques to be used and understanding the theory behind it (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008).
  • "Practical Tips for Nurturing At-Risk Teens Resilience" will be used for teen mothers in the program.

Focus areas include:

  • Relationships
    • Positive role model and trust
  • Acceptance
    • Encourage acceptance of support
  • Perspective
    • Focus on positive parenting and finishing school
  • Confidence
    • Encourage teen mother to trust her abilities
prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program11
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program
  • Outlook
    • Optimistic outlook
  • Goals
    • Assist with establishing realistic goals
  • Encouragement
    • Increase self-esteem
  • Involvement
    • Encourage teen mother to be involved in life
  • Baby steps
    • Build on small successes
  • Identity
    • Support racial or ethnic identity
  • Encourage involvement in community service
  • Celebration
    • Celebrate successes with peers and supportive adults in their lives

(Porter & Holness, 2011, p. 378) (as cited in American Psychological Association 2011; Ungar, 2004)

prevention of repeat teen pregnancy program12
Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program

Funding will be applied for through federal, state, local and private organizations.

Outcomes of this program will be monitored by the number of repeat teen pregnancies, graduation from high school, employment and individual career and personal goal completion. The Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program will compliment the already existing teen pregnancy programs in the community as well as serve these young mothers, their babies and families.

Continued collaboration and continuity would be enhanced by actual improved outcomes for teen mothers.

The goal of the Prevention of Repeat Teen Pregnancy Program is to optimize the quality of life for teen mothers, their children, and the communities where they live.

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References

American Psychological Association. (2011). The road to resilience. Washington DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience.aspx

Herrman, J.W. (2010). Assessing the teen parent family. The role for nurses. Nursing for Women's Health, 114(3), 214-221. doi: 10.111/j.1751- 486X.2010.01542x

Luthar, S. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2000). The construct of resilience: Implications for interventions and social policies. Development & Psychopathology, 12(4), 357-885.

Porter, L.S. & Holness, N.A. (2011). Breaking the repeat teen pregnancy cycle. How nurses can nurture resilience in at-risk teens. Nursing for Women's Health, 15(5), 370-381. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-486X.2011.01661.x

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2008). A closer look at the olds model. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=51653

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References

Stevens-Simon, C., Kelly, L., & Singer, D. (2001). A village would be nice but...it takes a long-acting contraceptive to prevent repeat adolescent pregnancies. American Journal of Preventive medicine, 21(1), 60-65.

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. (March 2010). Briefly...It's your responsibility to talk to youth: Pregnancy prevention for youth in foster care: A toll for caregivers and providers. Retrieved from http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/resources/pdf/Briefly_ItsYourRespons ibility.pdf

Ungar, M. (2004). Nurturing hidden resilience in troubled youth. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press.

Ventura, S.J., & Hamilton, B.E. (February 2011). U.S. teenage birth rate resumes decline. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NCHS Data Brief- 58. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db58.htm

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Acknowledgements

All photos contained within this presentation were obtained from Public

Domain