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Technician License Course Chapter 5 Operating Station Equipment PowerPoint Presentation
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Technician License Course Chapter 5 Operating Station Equipment
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  1. Technician License CourseChapter 5Operating Station Equipment Lesson Plan Module 11: Transmitters, Receivers and Transceivers

  2. Generalized Transceiver Categories • Single Band VHF or UHF FM • Dual Band VHF/UHF FM • Multimode VHF/UHF CW, SSB, FM • Multiband HF and VHF/UHF • Handheld (HT)

  3. Single Band Transceiver • Probably the most common starter rig. • Operates from 12 volts dc, requires external power supply. • Requires an external antenna. • Can be operated mobile or as a base station. • Limited to frequency modulation (FM) and usually either 2 meters or 70 cm bands. • Up to approximately 50 watts output.

  4. Dual Band Transceiver • Same as the single band transceiver but includes additional band(s). • Most common are 2 meter and 70 cm bands. • Could add 6 meters, 222 MHz or 1.2 GHz. • Depending on antenna connectors, might require separate coax for each band or a duplexer for single coax.

  5. Multimode Transceiver • Can be single or multiband. • Main difference is that these rigs can operate on all major modes SSB/AM/FM, CW, Data, RTTY etc. • More features add complexity and cost. • Most flexible of the rigs that will allow you to explore new modes as you gain experience.

  6. Multiband Transceiver • Covers many bands – can be limited to HF or can be HF/VHF/UHF. • Also covers all modes. • Frequently 100 watts on HF, some power limitations on high bands (50 watts). • Larger units have internal power supplies, smaller units need external power (13.8 V).

  7. Handheld (HT) Transceiver • Small handheld FM units. • Can be single band or dual band. • Limited power (usually 5 watts or less). • Includes power (battery) and antenna in one package. • An attractive first starter rig – but make sure it is what you want.

  8. Side-by-Side

  9. Rig Vocabulary • We will now go through some jargon and vocabulary specific to the functions and controls of a transmitter and receiver. • This is a way to discuss how to operate a transceiver. • These controls, though separate, are combined in a transceiver.

  10. Transmitter Controls and Functions • Main tuning dial (both TX and RX): • Controls the frequency selection via the variable frequency oscillator (VFO). • Could be an actual dial or key pad or programmed channels. • Variable frequency step size (tuning rate, resolution). • Could have more than one VFO (control more that one frequency at a time).

  11. Transmitter Controls and Functions • Mode selector (both TX and RX for multimode rigs). • AM/FM/SSB (LSB or USB) • CW • Data (RTTY) • Could be automatic based on recognized band plan.

  12. Transmitter Controls and Functions • Microphone controls • Gain • How loudly you need to talk to be heard. • Speech Compressor or Speech Processor • Compacting your speech into a narrow frequency range to enhance “punch.” • Too much gain or compression can cause problems. • Splatter (Signal too wide) • Over-deviation (FM) • Over-modulation (AM, SSB)

  13. Transmitter Controls and Functions • Automatic Level Control (ALC). • Automatically limits transmitter drive (output level) to prevent problems associated with too much gain or compression. • Also can control external power amplifier operation.

  14. Transmitter Controls and Functions • Transmitter on/off • Push-to-Talk (PTT) • Voice-Operated Transmission (VOX) • VOX Gain • VOX Delay • Anti-VOX • Key jack

  15. Transmitter Controls and Functions • Microphones (Mic) • Hand mics • Desk mics • Preamplified desk mikes • Speaker-mics • Headsets or boom-sets • Internal mikes • Speak across the mic, not into the mic.

  16. Transmitter Controls and Functions • Microphones (Mic) • Almost every manufacturer has a different wiring arrangement for their mic connections. • There will be connections for PTT and usually control voltages.

  17. Transmitter Controls and Functions • Morse Keys • Straight key • Electronic keyer and paddle • Semi-automatic (Bug) • A computer keyboard and software can also be used.

  18. Transceiver Special Features • Memories • Many transceivers have memory banks that allow the storage of frequency, offset / shift, CTCSS tone, power, and other settings; for easy recall. • Function Key • Many radios have so many features, that to access them from the available buttons on the radio, a “function” or “F” key is used to switch between menu options.

  19. Receiver Controls and Functions • AF Gain or Volume • Controls the audio level to the speaker or headphones. • RF Gain • Controls the strength of radio signal entering the receiver. • Used to limit (attenuate) very strong local signals. • Usually operated in the full-open position.

  20. Receiver Controls and Functions • Automatic Gain Control (AGC) • Automatically limits the incoming signals during signal (voice) peaks. • Prevents peaks from capturing the receiver and limiting reception of lower level portions of the incoming signal. • Fast setting for CW. • Slow settings for SSB and AM. • Not used in FM because of the type of signal used in FM.

  21. Receiver Controls and Functions • Squelch (Carrier Squelch) • Turns off audio to speaker when signal is not present. • Used in FM primarily • Open – allows very weak signals to pass through (along with noise). • Tight – allows only the strongest signals to pass through. • Advance the squelch control until the noise just disappears.

  22. Receiver Controls and Functions • Filters • Bandwidth filter • Used to narrow the width of the audio signal that is passed. • Can attenuate adjacent interference. • 2400 Hz for SSB • 500 Hz or 300 Hz for CW

  23. Receiver Controls and Functions • Filters • Notch filter • Very narrow filter that can be moved over an interfering signal to attenuate it. • Noise blanker or limiter • Limits signal spikes that are frequently associated with random naturally generated noise.

  24. Receiver Controls and Functions • Reception and Transmission Meter. • In transmit, indicates output power or ALC or other functions as selected by switch setting. • In receive - indicates signal strength. • In “S” units S1 through S9 – S9 is strongest. • Also have dB over S9 to cover very strong signals.

  25. Receiver Controls and Functions • Receivers can be limited to ham bands or can cover other parts of the spectrum. • General coverage receivers cover a wide area of the spectrum and can be used for shortwave listening (SWL).

  26. Receiver Controls and Functions • RIT – Receiver Incremental Tuning • Used to readjust the receive frequency without altering the transmit frequency ( HF – SSB) • “Shift” – Controls the offset between transmit and receive frequencies in VHF/UHF FM transceivers

  27. Handheld Transceivers • Single, dual and multiband versions (with increasing cost and complexity). • Some have expanded receiver coverage (wide-band receive). • Very portable and self-contained. • Internal microphone and speaker. • Rubber duck antenna. • Battery powered.

  28. Nice to have handheld accessories • Extra battery packs. • Drop-in, fast charger. • Extended antenna. • External microphone and speaker. • Headset.

  29. Which of the following describes the muting of receiver audio controlled solely by the presence or absence of an RF signal? (T2B03) • A. Tone squelch • B. Carrier squelch • C. CTCSS • D. Modulated carrier

  30. Which of the following describes the muting of receiver audio controlled solely by the presence or absence of an RF signal? (T2B03) • A. Tone squelch • B. Carrier squelch • C. CTCSS • D. Modulated carrier

  31. Which of the following is true concerning the microphone connectors on amateur transceivers? (T4A01) • A. All transceivers use the same microphone connector type • B. Some connectors include push-to-talk and voltages for powering the microphone • C. All transceivers using the same connector type are wired identically • D. Un-keyed connectors allow any microphone to be connected

  32. Which of the following is true concerning the microphone connectors on amateur transceivers? (T4A01) • A. All transceivers use the same microphone connector type • B. Some connectors include push-to-talk and voltages for powering the microphone • C. All transceivers using the same connector type are wired identically • D. Un-keyed connectors allow any microphone to be connected

  33. What may happen if a transmitter is operated with the microphone gain set too high? (T4B01) • A. The output power might be too high • B. The output signal might become distorted • C. The frequency might vary • D. The SWR might increase

  34. What may happen if a transmitter is operated with the microphone gain set too high? (T4B01) • A. The output power might be too high • B. The output signal might become distorted • C. The frequency might vary • D. The SWR might increase

  35. Which of the following can be used to enter the operating frequency on a modern transceiver? (T4B02) • A. The keypad or VFO knob • B. The CTCSS or DTMF encoder • C. The Automatic Frequency Control • D. All of these choices are correct

  36. Which of the following can be used to enter the operating frequency on a modern transceiver? (T4B02) • A. The keypad or VFO knob • B. The CTCSS or DTMF encoder • C. The Automatic Frequency Control • D. All of these choices are correct

  37. What is the purpose of a squelch control on a transceiver? (T4B03) • A. To set the highest level of volume desired • B. To set the transmitter power level • C. To adjust the automatic gain control • D. To mute receiver output noise when no signal is being received

  38. What is the purpose of a squelch control on a transceiver? (T4B03) • A. To set the highest level of volume desired • B. To set the transmitter power level • C. To adjust the automatic gain control • D. To mute receiver output noise when no signal is being received

  39. What is a way to enable quick access to a favorite frequency on your transceiver? (T4B04) • A Enable the CTCSS tones • B. Store the frequency in a memory channel • C. Disable the CTCSS tones • D. Use the scan mode to select the desired frequency

  40. What is a way to enable quick access to a favorite frequency on your transceiver? (T4B04) • A Enable the CTCSS tones • B. Store the frequency in a memory channel • C. Disable the CTCSS tones • D. Use the scan mode to select the desired frequency

  41. Which of the following would reduce ignition interference to a receiver? (T4B05) • A. Change frequency slightly • B. Decrease the squelch setting • C. Turn on the noise blanker • D. Use the RIT control

  42. Which of the following would reduce ignition interference to a receiver? (T4B05) • A. Change frequency slightly • B. Decrease the squelch setting • C. Turn on the noise blanker • D. Use the RIT control

  43. Which of the following controls could be used if the voice pitch of a single-sideband signal seems too high or low? (T4B06) • A. The AGC or limiter • B. The bandwidth selection • C. The tone squelch • D. The receiver RIT or clarifier

  44. Which of the following controls could be used if the voice pitch of a single-sideband signal seems too high or low? (T4B06) • A. The AGC or limiter • B. The bandwidth selection • C. The tone squelch • D. The receiver RIT or clarifier

  45. What does the term “RIT” mean? (T4B07) • A. Receiver Input Tone • B. Receiver Incremental Tuning • C. Receiver Inverter Test • D. Remote Input Transmitter

  46. What does the term “RIT” mean? (T4B07) • A. Receiver Input Tone • B. Receiver Incremental Tuning • C. Receiver Inverter Test • D. Remote Input Transmitter

  47. What is the advantage of having multiple receive bandwidth choices on a multimode transceiver? (T4B08) • A. Permits monitoring several modes at once • B. Permits noise or interference reduction by selecting a bandwidth matching the mode • C. Increases the number of frequencies that can be stored in memory • D. Increases the amount of offset between receive and transmit frequencies

  48. What is the advantage of having multiple receive bandwidth choices on a multimode transceiver? (T4B08) • A. Permits monitoring several modes at once • B. Permits noise or interference reduction by selecting a bandwidth matching the mode • C. Increases the number of frequencies that can be stored in memory • D. Increases the amount of offset between receive and transmit frequencies

  49. Which of the following is an appropriate receive filter to select in order to minimize noise and interference for SSB reception? (T4B09) • A. 500 Hz • B. 1000 Hz • C. 2400 Hz • D. 5000 Hz

  50. Which of the following is an appropriate receive filter to select in order to minimize noise and interference for SSB reception? (T4B09) • A. 500 Hz • B. 1000 Hz • C. 2400 Hz • D. 5000 Hz