Introducing: MAKO. MAKO is a 350 micron KID based camera designed to be a drop-in replacement to SHARC-II Goal: Demonstrate a scalable 350 micron pathfinder instrument using KIDs for large FOV ground-based telescopes Array should be: Photon-noise limited Simple to fabricate
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MAKO is a 350 micron KID based camera designed to be a drop-in replacement to SHARC-II
J Zmuidzinas, “Superconducting Microresonators: Physics and Applications,”
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics, 3 (March 2012).
Lk(I) = Lk (0) [1 + I2/I*2 + …]
Submitted for publication.
ILLUMINATE WITH 5 pW OF
215 mm RADIATION
Deep in bifurcation regime:
NEP ~ 2 x 10-16
about 3x above photon noise
and doesn’t address
cost and multiplexing issues…
We think so.
See Chris McKenney’s presentation
Goal: Demonstrate a scalable 350 micron pathfinder instrument using KIDs for large FOV ground-based telescopes
“CCAT optical design for 1° FOV”
fl/2 at 350 mm:
6 Million w/ corrector plate 1° FOV
1 Million w/o corrector plate ~ 30’ FOV
Soft goal: ~ $1 per pixel including everything.
In particular, electronics cost dominates. DENSE MULTIPLEXING REQUIRED
Constant power astronomy
Minimum per-pixel bandwidth: Df ~200 Hz
set by telescope scan speed
Min f0 if we can achieve a Q = 105 : 20 MHz
Nmux 1k – 3k
Q few x 105
PT410 pulse tubeCryostat
1μW @ < 220 mK
3He buffer head
30μW @ < 350 mK
1 K head
250μW @ < 1 K
Cycle time ~3 hours
Hold time 24 – 36 hours
Cold Aperture Stop
Dewar Entrance Plane
C++ (CUDA) cuFFT
Pentek 2x ADC, 2x DAC
500 MSPS $15k
1st stage: $3500
2st stage: $500
250 MHz bandwidth
$30k for 2 lines ($15k/line)
anti-aliasing filters here. 500 MHz BW.
PLLs used to
upconvert SRS rubidium
10 MHz source.
Separate A/D, D/A & FPGA
Use minimum FPGA
to keep $/pixel down.
x8 PCIe Gen2 supports
4 GB/s transfer rates.
Data rate is only 1.5 GB/s
Can the GPU keep up?
for N = 2^25, 3 GFLOP-per-fft
(1e9 Samples-per-second/2^25 samples-per-fft)*3 GFLOP-per-fft
= 89 GFLOPS
or 60% of benchmarked rate.
(m2090 has 25% greater max capacity, thus ~47% of GPU potential)
Texas Instruments ADS5463 500 MSPS, 12-bit A/D
Does the ADC have enough dynamic range?
Worst SNR ~ 65 dBFS
PSD = (N/BW)/S = 1/[SNR*BW] = 1/[SNR*(fs/2)]
Noise-to-carrier PSD (dB):
-65-10log(250e6) = -148 dBc/Hz
Compare with kTn/Pread where Tn is ~ 3.5 K
and Pread is max before bifurcation, 4 K TiN:
10*log(1.38e-23*3.5/129e-15) = -94 dBc/Hz …. 54 dB cushion