Medical Physics Physics 421 Course Description: Medical Physics is a course with two main parts: Physics of the body Physics of Diagnostic and Therapeutic techniques The second part of the course addresses the physics behind the diagnostic and therapeutic methods developed for the treatment of human disease. We will discuss modern radiology equipment and the physics principles on which they are developed. We will discuss production of radioactivity, the effects of radiation, as well as radiation safety and protection. The topics that we will address include atomic physics, solid-state physics, and nuclear physics along with their applications to medical instrumentation.
Done! X-rays NMR imaging (MRI) 1980’s Nuclear Medicine PET (positron emission tomography) Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine What are the short comings of x-rays? Tissue vs. bone nicely separated Tissue structure not seen… Pathology inside internal organs unknown Soft tissue detail Quantum mechanical property of spin (mag. + dir.)
8. Diagnostic Radiology Fluoroscope
film body Dark Light X-Ray source The sensitized grains develop into a silver speck with an average cross section a after the film development. If light hits one of the silver specks in the developed film, it is completely absorbed (black spot).
8.3 PHYSICS OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) Quantum mechanics spin resonances Computers The Basics of NMR
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Winners in 2003 PAUL C. LAUTERBUR 2003 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging SIR PETER MANSFIELD 2003 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging
The nuclear magnetic resonance is based on the interaction between a nucleus which possesses a spin I and an external magnetic field B. The atomic nucleus consists of Z protons and N neutrons. Each of these nucleons possesses an intrinsic angular momentum (rotation around its axis) which is associated with the spin quantum number s=1/2. The magnitude for the spin angular momentum is:
Because of the positive charge of the proton it has a magnetic moment (similar to the magnetic moment induced by a current J through a loop with area A ( mj=J x A): Magnitude and Direction
In the presence of an external magnetic field B, the magnetic moments align and they precess around the external field direction with a frequency w0which is called the Larmor frequency. The Larmor frequency is proportional to the gyromagnetic ratio g of the atoms. g is unique for a nucleus
The aligned nuclei can occupy two energy states, depending whether they precess around the external field vector in field direction (parallel) or whether they precess opposite to the field direction (anti-parallel). The potential energy of an magnetic moment in an external field is given by: mI=+1/2 for parallel alignment with external field mI=-1/2 for antiparallel alignment with external field The later stage represents a energetically higher configuration.
The energy difference between these two states is: Transitions can take place between these two excitation levels. By absorption of a photon from the lower (spin down) to the upper state. …emission of a photon from the upper (spin up) to the lower state. The photon energy is directly correlated to the Larmor frequency: This energy at the Larmor frequency is either absorbed or emitted in a transition between the two excitation states!
The two spin states are differently populated as a consequence of applying an external magnetic field. After a certain relaxation time t1 the population of the two levels will reach an equilibrium which is determined by the temperature and the energy difference between the two states. Because of its higher excitation energy the upper state is less favored. The population ratio between the two states for a I = 1/2system is determined by the Saha equation: where k is the Boltzmann constant, Ts is the absolute temperature of the sample, n(,+1/2) is the number of nuclei in the spin-up state (parallel to the direction of B), n(,1/2) is the number of nuclei in the spin-down state (antiparallel to the direction of B)
Each element that exhibits a magnetic moment has a characteristic energy difference between the spin-up and the spin-down level which corresponds to its characteristic Larmor frequency in the external magnetic field B. This allows to discriminate one element from another using the (nuclear) magnetic resonancesignal. The NMR (or MR) signal is the result of excitation of the spin-down state of certain nuclei in a sample by irradiation with a radiofrequency (RF) energy pulse B1of specific frequency (Larmor frequency). This energy absorption causes the displacement of the net-magnetic momentum from its normal equilibrium distribution in the external magnetic field towards the population of the higher excited spin-down state.
As the system returns to equilibrium by de-excitation, MR signals are emitted in proportion of the number of excited nuclei in the sample until the equilibrium has itself re-established again. Equilibrium Equilibrium The characteristic time for re-establishing the equilibrium is the relaxation time T1of the spin system.
Two relaxation times T1 and T2 1 Tesla fat T1=240ms T2=80ms heart muscle T1= 570 ms T2=57 ms Malignant tissue often have higher values of T1 than normal tissue of same type….
This absorption and subsequent emission process takes place onlyat a certain frequency w0(Larmor frequency) for the RF-signal. That particular frequency is called the magnetic resonance of the isotope. At this frequency a large number of excitation processes take place. In the subsequent relaxation a large number of characteristic signals is emitted which can be detected. The figure shows the number of signals as a function of frequency w, atw =w0resonance is reached. The detection and acquisition of NMR signals at the characteristic Larmor frequency constitutes the basic information for NMR spectroscopy and imaging.
8. Diagnostic Radiology 8.4 NMR IMAGING -MRI The Basics of MRI
Current MRI technology displays images as multiple sets of gray tone images. Visualization and interpretation of the multi-parameter images may be optimized by assigned color tissue segmentation.
Researcher H. Keith Brown, Ph.D. has developed technology that creates color composite images that indicate the unique physical and chemical properties of the human tissues represented by those images.