Adjectives and Adverbs Forming Comparisons
Adjectives • Remember that an adjective is a word that modifies, or describes, a noun. • Adjectives answer which one, what kind, and how many. • The articles a, an, and the are the most commonly used adjectives. Proper adjectives are often formed from nouns. Examples:Olympianswimmer North American countries Nike shoes A Predicate adjective follows the linking verb and describes the verb’s subject. Example: Some students are extraordinary.
Adjectives as Pronouns Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives to make their meaning more specific. Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these, and those) can be used as adjectives. This food tastes soggy. That food tastes fresh. Indefinite pronouns (all, each, both, few, most, and some) can be used as adjectives.
Nouns as Adjectives Nouns can also be used as adjectives to modify another noun. The fingerprint evidence convicted the robber. He was convicted on murder charges. A large dinner party was taking place.
Adverbs • An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. • Adverbs answer the questions How, When, Where, and To what extent. Adverbs can appear at different places in a sentence. John completed the exam quickly. Quickly, John completed the exam. John quickly completed the exam.
Forming Comparisons—Comparative Form Use the comparative form of an adjective or adverb when you compare a person or thing with one other person or thing. COMPARING TWO PEOPLE, THINGS, OR IDEAS Key Word: THAN • Earth is LARGER than Venus. (adjective) • Earth orbits the sun MORE SLOWLY thanVenus. (adverb)
Forming Comparisons—The Superlative Form Use the superlative form of an adjective when you compare someone or something with MORE THAN ONE other person or thing. Comparing three or more people, ideas, or things Which of the students is the tallest? Which of the four classes moves most quickly?
Modifiers • What do we mean by MODIFIERS? • What modifies a noun? • What modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb? • ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS ARE MODIFIERS.
One Syllable Modifiers Form the comparative and superlative forms of a one-syllable adjective by adding –er for the comparative form and –est for the superlative. • Mary is tallerthan Max. • Mary is the tallestof all the students. • Max is olderthan John. • Of the three students, Max is the oldest. • My hair is longerthan your hair. • Max's story is the longeststory I've ever heard.
One Syllable Modifiers • If the one-syllable adjective ends with an e, just add –r for the comparative form and –st for the superlative form. Mary's car is largerthan Max's car. Max is wiserthan his brother. Max is the wisestperson I know.
One Syllable Modifiers • If the one-syllable adjective ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, double the consonant and add –er for the comparative form; and double the consonant and add –est for the superlative form. My dog is biggerthan your dog. Max is thinnerthan John.
Two Syllable Modifiers With most two-syllable adjectives, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most. Two-syllable adjectives ending in –er, -le, or –ow take –er and –est to form the comparative and superlative forms.
Two Syllable Modifiers • If the two-syllable adjectives ends with –y, change the y to i and add –er for the comparative form. For the superlative form change the y to i and add –est.
Two Syllable Modifiers • Two-syllable adjectives that follow two rules. These adjectives can be used with -er and -est and with more and most.
Three or more Syllable Modifiers For adjectives with three syllables or more, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.