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Hypertension. By: Samantha Pell. What is Hypertension?. Means the pressure created by the blood in the arteries is too high Condition commonly called “silent killer”. What is blood pressure?. Nervous system – maintains blood pressure

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By: Samantha Pell

What is hypertension
What is Hypertension?

  • Means the pressure created by the blood in the arteries is too high

  • Condition commonly called “silent killer”

What is blood pressure
What is blood pressure?

  • Nervous system – maintains blood pressure

    • Adjusts the size of the blood vessels and influences the hearts pumping action

  • Kidneys – regulate blood pressure

    • Adjusts mechanisms that change the blood volume

  • Blood pressure – determined by 2 factors

    • The force of the heart pumping blood to the body

    • Arteries resistance to blood flow

  • Blood pressure is made up of a combination

    • systolic pressure & diastolic pressure

      • Systolic pressure – blood pressure measured in the arteries as the heart contracts and pumps blood into the blood vessels

        • Marks maximum pressure in arteries

      • Diastolic pressure – blood pressure measured in the arteries between heart beats when the heart relaxes

        • Marks minimum pressure in arteries

  • First higher number in BP reading – systolic pressure

  • Second lower number in BP reading – diastolic pressure

  • Unit of measurements – millimeters of mercury (mmHg)

    • Represents column of mercury used in blood pressure gauges

  • the Higher the blood pressure - longer the condition of Hypertension persists

    • greater the damage

Blood pressure
Blood Pressure

Category Systolic Diastolic

Normal up to 120 & up to 80

Pre hypertension 120 – 139 or 80 – 89


Stage 1 140 – 159 or 90 – 99

Stage 2 160 – 179 or 100 – 109

Stage 3 180 and up or 110 and up

  • only one number need to be high to have hypertension, systolic or diastolic

What causes hypertension
What causes Hypertension?

  • No identifiable medical cause

    - different factors per different people

  • High levels of insulin – development of hypertension

    - Most likely to occur in people with diabetes mellitus type II

  • Age

    – Adults over 60 - sedentary lifestyle

  • Heredity

    – If close relatives (parents ) suffer

  • Gender

    – men - younger adulthood and early middle age

    – women - after age of 60

  • Obesity – precipitates hypertension

    - Causes extra miles of capillaries for blood to be pumped

  • Smoking, stress, alcoholism

  • Diet – high in salt or saturated fat

  • Genetic factors

    - Family history of: hypertension , stroke, heart attack or kidney failure, use of contraceptive pills, steroids or decongestants

How do you know if you have it
How do you know if you have it?

  • Normally has no visible symptoms in early stages

  • Symptoms typically appear after complications or damage have already occurred

  • In some cases (severe hypertension):

    • Sever headaches

    • Fatigue or confusion

    • Sleeping disorders

    • Vision problems

    • Chest pain

    • Difficulty breathing

    • Irregular heart beat

    • Blood in urine

    • Obesity

    • High LCD cholesterol

    • High blood pressure

    • Dizziness


  • Check blood pressure

  • Checks need to be repeated over time to be confirmed

  • Physical exam

  • Tests to look for blood in urine or heart failure

  • Doctor will look for signs of complications in: heart, kidneys, eyes, other organs in body

  • Tests include: chem-20, echocardiogram, urinalysis, x ray of kidneys

How can hypertension be prevented
How can Hypertension be prevented?

  • Exercise

    - 25 – 50 % lower risk of hypertension

  • Hypertension from unknown causes

  • Not preventable at present

  • Obtain frequent blood pressure checks

  • If detected early – treatment – diet, exercise, stress management, medication – can prevent complications

  • 30% of hypertension cases attributes to genetic factors

  • Those with hypertensive parents are two times as likely to get it

How to treat
How to treat

  • Can be controlled with medicine and lifestyle changes

  • see your physician regularly

  • use standard medicines as necessary

  • DON’T take non prescription cold and sinus remedies , contain drugs that raise BP

  • adopt the specially modified DASH diet

  • exercise regularly to maintain your ideal weight

  • reduce alcohol intake to a reasonable level

  • cut back on caffeine

  • say goodbye to smoking and tobacco

  • distress your life by practicing relaxation techniques

  • Learn to take own BP

  • Seek medical advice about any lifestyle changes


  • Doctor will account variety of factors to establish which type is best

  • Often doctors will recommend multiple drugs

  • May take experimenting to find best medication

  • Medication works best with lifestyle changes

  • 20% of patients do not respond positively to any medication treatment

  • Blood pressure lowering medication is injected right into blood stream during an emergency

  • Medications – vasodilators, alpha & beta blockers and ACE inhibitors

    when to go to prescription

  • over the age of 60

  • male

  • postmenopausal woman

What does it lead to
What does it lead to?

  • uncontrolled HB – increases risk of stroke, heart attack, heart failure, kidney failure, eye problems

    cardiovascular complications

  • narrowing of the arteries (arteriosclerosis)

  • fatty substances – build up on artery’s inner lining – hardening and thickening it

  • buildup – plaque – reduces blood flow through arteries

  • expansion of main artery (aortic aneurism)

  • bulge in aorta – may burst

    • usually occur in abdomen – below kidneys also in chest

  • thickening of the hearts left chamber ( left ventricular hypertrophy)

  • higher pressure in blood vessels – increase hearts workload

  • may lead to heart failure

  • all may damage vital organs


  • stroke – blood flow to brain cut off

  • brain cells die – possible brain damage

  • hypertension increases risk of stroke by 4 – 6 times

  • two types of strokes

  • ischemic stroke – clots from blood vessels to brain block blood flow to brains cells – or when too much plaque clogs blood vessels

  • hemorrhagic stroke – blood vessels in brain breaks or ruptures – blood seeps to brain tissue – damage to brain cells

  • HBP and brain aneurisms – most common cause

What does it lead to1
What does it lead to?


  • Hypertensive heart failure – hearts pumping power – weaker than normal

  • Blood moving through hearts and arteries slower – pressure in heart increases

  • Result – heart cannot pump enough oxygen and nutrients

  • Heart chamber stretch as response to hold more blood

  • Heart muscle walls weaken – not able to pump as strongly

  • Kidneys then cause body to retain fluid and sodium

  • Causes body to become congested – leads to congestive heart failure

  • Symptoms of heart failure – shortness of break, swelling in the feet, ankles or abdomen, fatigue, greater need to pee at night


  • Hypertension – weakens/narrows blood vessels in the kidneys

  • Affects function of waste removal


  • Hypertension – damages blood vessels in retina – hypertensive retinopathy – may lead to damage to eyesight / possible loss of vision

  • May cause headaches – vision problems if sever

  • Hypertension – may reduce ability to think, remember and learn

  • Uncontrolled HBP – linked to cognitive decline and senile dementia

Types of hypertension
Types of Hypertension

Secondary hypertension

  • Accounts for 5% hypertension cases

  • Diagnose when HBP caused by a specific disease in body’s organs or systems

  • May be cured if cause is dealt with

    Renal hypertension

  • Kidneys unable to get rid of salt and other wastes in a normal way

  • Blood vessels may be scarred or tightened

  • Narrowing of renal artery

  • Leads to release of hormones


  • Caused by glad tumors (pheochromocytoma)

  • Rare tumor of the adrenal glands

  • Less common type of hypertension

  • Causes excessive amounts of adrenal hormones

    Co Aration of the aorta

  • Rare hereditary disorder

  • Main large artery from heart is narrowed

  • Usually detected and treated in childhood

  • Most common cause in children

Types of hypertension1
Types of Hypertension

Hypertension during pregnancy

  • 12 – 22 % of pregnancies

  • After 20th week

  • Arteries in body and placenta tighten

  • Unpredictable blood clotting may result

  • Untreated – serious complications to mother and baby

    Isolated systolic hypertension

  • Caused by blood vessels losing elasticity

  • Occurs when systolic pressure is above 140 mmHg

  • May lead to stroke and heart disease

    High systolic BP

  • just as dangerous as diastolic BP

    White coat hypertension

  • When HBP is misread at the doctors office

  • Caused by anxiety during examination – temporary symptoms of stress

  • Should be dealt with cautiously

  • May be absolutely harmless – should be aware that other stressful situations could cause the same results

  • If suffering – monitor BP from home

Types of hypertension2
Types of Hypertension

Labile Hypertension

  • Abrupt and repeated fluctuation of BP

  • Effects those with high emotion stress

  • Treated by medication for lowering anxiety

    Malignant hypertension

  • Rasies BP to dangerous levels

  • Most threatening form of hypertension

  • Extremely rare

  • Causes unknown- but sometimes related to drug abuse

  • Calls for immediate hospitalization

    Accelerated progressive

  • marked by changes of malignant hypertension


  • arterial BP when in nomotensive range or hypertensive range

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary

  • obstruction of a major pulmonary artery

Types of hypertension3
Types of Hypertension


  • occurring without cause

    Familial dyslipidemic

  • inherited


  • experimentally enduced


  • Essential


  • essential


  • due to primary diseases


  • results in anlargment of liver

    Systemic venous

  • detected by inspection of the jugular veins

Types of hypertension4
Types of Hypertension


  • a few neurologic symptoms


  • increase tension of pressure, causes hypertension



  • http://rosenblumtv.files.wordpress.com/2007/12/hypertension.jpg

  • http://images.jupiterimages.com/common/detail/05/03/23240305.jpg


  • “Medicweb Hypertension”. http://hypertension.medicweb.org/(13,April.2008).

  • Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary Over 100 Years in Print 30th Edition

    Saunders, Philadelphia

    The Curtis Center

    Independence Square West

    Philidalphia, PA 10196

  • Houston, Mark. Fox, Barry. Taylor, Nadine. What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Hypertension. New York: Warner Books, Inc. 2003.

  • Weinrauch, Larry A. “High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)” http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000468.htm(6/4/2007).

  • “Hypertension(High Blood Pressure).” www.mdadvice.com/library/symp/illness287.html(13,April,2008).