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融合教育:理論與實踐 (Inclusive Education: Theory and Practice). Ming-Gon John Lian 連明剛 Faculty of Education University of Hong Kong. 今日的學校環境 Today’s school environment. = 我們共有的特 (things we share in common). = 每一個人獨有的 特色 (uniqueness of each individual person).

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Inclusive education theory and practice

融合教育:理論與實踐(Inclusive Education: Theory and Practice)

Ming-Gon John Lian連明剛

Faculty of Education

University of Hong Kong


今日的學校環境

Today’s school environment

= 我們共有的特 (things we share in common)

= 每一個人獨有的

特色 (uniqueness of

each individual person)


Inclusion is (融合的理念是). . .

團隊 經驗

精神 分享

(team spirit) (sharing of

experience)

包容

(to accept; 扶持

to include) (to support)

養分 (Nourishment)


Hong Kong’s Diversity

(香港的多元化). . .

  • 是正常的現象 (natural).

  • 值得我們接受與分享(appreciate and celebrate).

  • 是我們共同努力的方向(effort and aim).


融合” (inclusion)一詞 . . .

是指向有特殊教育需要的人士提供機會,讓他們能夠全面參與社會上各式各樣的活動,包括教育、就業、消費、娛樂、社區及家庭活動。(Providing opportunities to persons with SEN for them to fully participate in all activities in the community, including education, work, consume, recreate, and other community and home activities)

(ED IE Implementation Guide

教育署融合教育實施指引)


Inclusion
Inclusion 是關於 . . .

  • 有完整的人生(living full lives).

  • 學會共同生存(living together).

  • 以世界為我們的教室(making the world our classroom).

    (www.inclusion.com)


Inclusion1
Inclusion 是關於 . . .

  • 珍惜多元化(treasuring diversity).

  • 建立共同社會(building community).

  • 我們的能力 (our “abilities”) – 分享我們的天賦.

  • 而非我們的殘疾缺陷(is NOT just a “disability” issue).

    (www.inclusion.com)


Global trend
融合教育乃是世界性潮流 (Global Trend)

1993 – 聯合國通過「弱能人士機會均等標準」

UN Equal Opportunity Standards

1994 – The Salamanca Statement

1994 - 世界特教會議研究推廣融合教育模式

The World Special Education

Council’s IE Model

1995 – The UK Green Paper on

Excellence for All Children


In u s
美國早期的情形(in U.S.)

1936 –

State vs. Christ - A polio victim was ruled to stay in special school because of his inability to meet the standard of the grade school.


In u s1
美國早期的情形(in U.S.)

1950

State Board of Education vs. Petty - A deaf child was ruled to attend special school instead of public school because this child had a physical defect and “necessarily must” receive a different type of instruction than one who was not handicapped.


In u s2
美國早期的情形(in U.S.)

1958

Department of Public Welfare vs. Haas - There was an implied "capacity to learn" attached to the right to an education; public schools were not responsible to provide education to handicapped children.


In u s3
美國近代融和教育趨勢 (in U.S.)

1954 – Brown vs. Board of Education (If the state

provides education for some, it should

provide education for all on an equal

opportunity basis)

1960s- Civil rights movement (民權運動)

1964 – President’s Committee on Mental Retardation

1971 – PARC vs. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

1972 – Mills vs. Board of Education (Zero rejection)

1973 – P.L. 93-112 Sec. 504

(Nondiscriminatory treatment)


美國近代融和教育趨勢

1975 – P.L. 94-142 Education for All Handicapped

Children Act--Free, appropriate, public

education in least restrictive environment

(LRE) (Mainstreaming 回歸主流)

1980s –Regular Education Initiative (REI)

[1986 –相對台灣台北啟智學校創校事件 the Taipei event]

1990 – P.L. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

(IDEA)—(REI: children will attend schools “as

as they were nondisabled”) (inclusive education

as in Wayne Sailor’s neighborhood school)


過去的 continuum 模式

醫療機構 住宿學校

特殊學校 普通學校特殊班

普通學校資源教室

普通學校普通班加支援


以學生為本的模式(student-centered model)…

治療師

特殊需要學生

主流教師

特教教師

=同學

家長

Circle of friends

自然環境

Natural Environment

社工


一般說來 . . .

Integration乃是將有特殊教育需要的學生“安插” (integrated)在主流學校教室內 (在中國或稱 “隨班附讀”);教育體系中,仍有 ordinary school 與 special school 兩個分支。被安插的學生往往只有輕度弱能。


inclusion . . .

乃是從幼兒教育起即無 “正規教育”與“特殊教育”之分 (no duel system),所有的學生均被 “included”在一自然學習環境中--這是最終的理想境界。

Dreamer? Advocate?


我們應視特殊教育(special education) . . .

為一種 service 或 programme, 而非僅是一個隔離場所 (segregated or isolated place)。


Inclusion . . .

Is not simply placing children with special educational needs into the mainstream schools . . . It is about changing schools for them to be more responsive to the needs of all children (To, 2002).


General education teachers teaching experience year
最近一項調查 -- -- general education teachers’ teaching experience(year)

Lian (2003)


Agree strongly agree
贊同融合教育(Agree/Strongly agree) (%)

Lian (2003)


Agree strongly agree1
贊同融合教育(Agree/Strongly agree) (%)

Lian (2003)


當前,香港的基礎教育

(basic education in Hong Kong) . . .

  • 在提供「量」(quantitatively) 的方面已經達標多時 (adequate)

  • 在「質」(qualitatively) 的方面則冀望有所突破 (need another break-through)

    (ED “Marching toward Inclusion”

    教育署『邁向融合之路』- 光碟)


Since 1970s
自七十年代以來(since 1970s). . .

香港的教育政策已是盡量協助有特殊教育需要學生融入主流學校,好讓它們能夠與同齡兒童一起受適當的教育(together with their nondisabled peers)。

(ED 教育署,1997,p.1)


政府在 1995 年重申. . .

“所有兒童都應有機會充分發展潛能,長大後成為社會上積極而負責任的一份子。”

(「平等齊參與、展能創明天」康復及服務白皮書 HK Government’s whitepaper)


本港於 . . .

1996 年通過《殘疾歧視條例》

2001 年三月推出《殘疾歧視條例》

教育務實守則」公眾諮訊文件

明確闡釋 “除非有不能解決的困難,學校必須錄取弱能學生。”

(教育署,2001)


先導計劃 . . .

“為了探討更有效的方法幫助能力參差的學生,教育署於一九九七年九月推行了一項為期兩年的融合教育先導計劃。”(教育署,1997,p.1)這項計劃仍在持續進行與擴展中。


學習困難 (learning difficulties)

每個學生或多或少都有學習困難


並非 (It is not) . . .

少數學生有學習困難 (minority)

多數學生沒有學習困難 (majority)


再者 . . .

吾人卻常忽略同處而專注於異處

大多數學生皆是同多異少 (similarity > difference)


當人們聽到 “殘障” (handicap)

兩字. . .

往往會聯想到憐恤、依賴、甚至低能、限制、或社會負擔 (pity, dependent, low function, limitation, burden) . . .


當人們聽到 “殘障” 兩字. . .

. . . 或者會聯想到有差別、退縮、行為異常、或反社會傾向 (difference, withdrawal, atypical behavior, antisocial potential) . . .


事實上 . . .

傷殘人士往往和一般人大同小異。人人均有若干長處與短處 (all people have strengths and weaknesses)。


香港有很多 Hong Kong has many. . .

融合教育成功的例子 successful IE examples


例如劉麗娟老師 . . .

以『愛與尊重』- 建立共融的校園文化。

元朗官立上午小學


陳婉玲老師 . . .

以『關懷互勉‧愛中成長』- 推動融合教育。

福榮街官立上午小學


李飛龍老師 . . .

成功地教導有自閉症傾向的學生,他說「最可喜的是同學們開始接受他,樂意陪伴他玩耍了」。

藍田循道衛理小學


陳惠玲校長說 . . .

“經歷一年,我們完全認同融合教育的精神,我們深信有許多弱能兒童,在適切的協助下,可以在主流學校中接受教育,並得到更大的發展。”

(筲箕灣官立上午小學)


根據聖公會日修小學 . . .

“推行融合教育-- 愛心是最重要的,愛心令學生、老師和家長彼此互相包容和接納”。


湯梅芬校長說 . . .

「家長是融合教育學校的寶貴資源」 。

(屯門官立上午小學)


我的朋友 Ann . . .

Ann 係中一健康教育老師,有一學期,校長在她班上安插了一名盲生 . . .


融合教育成功的學生 . . .

Joshua

Benjamin

Nathan

Bradley

Beth Stewart

Perske畫



我們睇到了 . . .

  • 天真純潔的童心。

  • 歡樂相處。

  • 包容、互相扶持和照顧。

  • 友誼。

  • 自信心。

  • 領導與團隊精神。

  • 將來彼此間的資源。

Perske畫


學生們 . . .

並沒有先問問彼此的IQ分數 才決定要不要交為朋友。

Perske畫


Nick Crawford太平紳士曾說 . . .

“我們相信每位兒童都生而平等,具有同等的價值與尊嚴。我們相信每所學校應該稟承有教無類的精神,以啟發每位兒童的潛能 . . .”


他又說 . . .

“我們相信一個平等、兼容和仁愛的社會,是建於彼此尊重、互相接納的大同社會的信念。”

(HKIED-CSNSIE, Nov., 2000)


I have a dream . . .

“I have a dream that one day all people will be recognized as people, celebrated for who they are, and not recognized by their limitations. I challenge you to learn new ideas and new ways of being i________”


融合教育理念 ABC . . .

A–accessibility

B–belonging/bias-free

C–commitment

D–diversity

E–equal opportunity

F–friendship

G–goal

H-home school

I-inclusion

J-justice

K-kids belong to kids

L-least restriction

M-mainstreaming

N-nondiscrimination

O-open door/mind

Q-quality of life


融合教育理念 ABC . . .

R - relationship

S - shared partnership

T - team

U - unification

V - vision

W - working-hand-in-hand

X - x mark the opportunity for all children

Y - “You belong to us.”

Z - zero rejection


融合教育的執行 . . .

Accept, accommodation/adaptation, assistive technology, barrier-free, belong, change of attitudes, creativity, collaboration/cooperation, desegregation, equal opportunity, flexibility, goal-orientation, helping relationship, interaction, individualized needs and planning, judgment, keep promise, learning together/leadership, merging general & special education . . .


融合教育的執行 . . .

. . . neighborhood school, outcome-based, parent/family involvement, peer interaction, quality of education, resources, support, teamwork, technological assistance, unified education, vision-to-mission, working together, exemplary, “you”, zero rejection.

(Lian & Hemenway, The Connection, May, 1994)


In an ie school
推行融合教育學校的特色 (in an IE school) . . .

  • 因材施教

  • 科技支援

  • 同輩互助

  • 課室管理

  • 家長參與

  • 全校參與

  • 課程調適

  • 教師協作

  • 教學調適

  • 協作教學

(教育署, 1997, 2001)


School management . . .

  • 學校環境與氣氛

  • 人事編制與在職進修

  • 課程發展、安排與執行

  • 經費

  • 運用資源

  • 家長參與

與版府領導和配合


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