Objectives: • Analyze the characteristics of 3D instructional materials • Create 3D instructional materials • Demonstrate proper use of 3D instructional materials
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MEDIA • Display an additional quality that appeals to the sense of touch – that is, a tactual quality. • Gives a richer understanding of real things.
3D INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS • Are very useful in the event that real-life materials are impossible to be brought in the classroom to provide students with certain amount of direct, purposeful, rich and meaningful learning experience. • Are usually constructed to allow handling by the students, except those which are too large, too costly, to rare, or too fragile.
Pioneers in Education in their Education Theory • Jean Piaget • Use the methods of instruction through the individualized programs, exploration and experimentation with concrete materials that helps the child to learn more about his environment. • With the use of real things, a child is able to compare or contrast things and make perception about his environment.
Maria Montessori • using real things help promote motor and sensory skills. • Jerome Brunner • Proposes that instruction should proceed from direct experiences (real things) to iconic representation (pictures) to symbolic representation (words) for achieving mastery of task.
Kinds of 3D’s • Objects and Specimens • Models and Mock-ups • Diorama • Puppets • Resource Person
1. Objects and Specimens Objects… • Are concrete materials such as plants, animals, tools and artifacts used in providing direct experience.
Specimens… Is a part or aspect of some item that is a typical sample of the character of others in its same class or group. In biology, a specimen is an individual animal, part of an animal, plant, part of a plant, or microorganism used as a representative to study the properties of the whole population of that species or subspecies. Invertebrate
Points to consider in teaching: • Develop a purpose for using them. • Provide opportunities to learners to work with or to manipulate the specimens so that they can consider concepts, process and principles by themselves. • Present just enough specimens or objects at a time so as not to overwhelm the learners. • Present the materials in a dramatic way so as to arouse and sustain the interest of the learners.
ADVANTAGES: LIMITATIONS: • These are less abstract and more concrete. • It attracts learners’ attention. • Learners become more familiar with objects. • Needs a bigger storage. • Prone to possible damage. • Some objects have limitation in availability and may not be easy to be found.
2.Models and Mock-ups MODELS • are scaled replicas of real objects. • Show the totality of a thing or a process. Examples: model cars airplanes house solar system
MOCK-UPS Are special types of models which are focused on a specific part of a whole object and are workable. It is intended to show the essential parts which are made detachable.
TYPES: • Solid Models– are mainly used for recognizing external features as in the case of globes and puppets. • Cross-section Model/Cut-away Models– show the internal structures.
3. Construction Model – which can be assembled and disassembled to show relationship of parts to whole. 4. Working Models - indicates how the things being represented operate.
ADVANTAGES: • Allows learner to examine model or mock-ups which may not be easy in the real object. • Functional model/mock-ups allows learners to handle and operate. • After presentation, model can be left on display for a period of time and allows learners to independently study the item at their own convenience.
Can provide learning experiences that real objects cannot provide. • Working models can illustrate basic operations of a real device and provide important details.
WHEN TO USE: • When reality is too small. • When reality is inaccessible (past and futuristic events); and when distance is impossible to bridge. • When reality is too dangerous (like viewing an erupting volcano).
When reality is unreliable (weather and other climatic conditions). • When reality is too abstract (space relationship, mathematics)
DISADVANTAGES: • It may be more expensive that extra care is needed. • Some models which are too big may be difficult to handle for the actual lecture. • If model are built to scale, it could be time consuming. • It might distort some real objects.
3. DIORAMA The term diorama is of Greek origin which means “to see through”. Diorama is a three-dimensional representation of events, ideas or concepts against a scenic background.
It is also known as a meaningful exhibit in boxes or cases, which are portable. It is a miniature scene in three-dimensional treatment that is meant to replicate reality and cause students to think creatively and aesthetically.
A three dimensional representation of events, ideas or concepts against a scenic background. Are portable meaningful exhibit in boxes or cases. A miniature scene in 3D treatment that is meant to replicate reality and cause students to think creatively and aesthetically.
Four Principal Parts: The case or stage. The painted background. The three-dimensional middle and foreground. The figures, constructions, and modeled objects that are placed in the case.
ADVANTAGES: Have intrinsic values. Allows us to compare past and present conditions. Help us make connections to the real world Develops students creativity Can be viewed, handled and examined by students. Adds interest and meaning to the lesson.
4. PUPPETS • Puppets are artificial figures whose movements are controlled by a person. They are inanimate objects that are manipulated so as to appear to be moving. The person who operates them is called a puppeteer. • Puppets are moved by hand or by strings, wires, or rods. Puppet figures are made to represent a person, animal, plant, or an object.
A puppet can become the medium through which the children express themselves, often in role-playing fashion. Puppets can assist the child in assuming the role of the character that he is portraying.
Types of Puppets • Shadow puppets – They are two-dimensional in nature, normally controlled by rods that are much thinner than the typical ones that are used to support the rod puppet. This type of puppet makes use of a translucent screen (rear-view screen) and a light source for its effective use. 2. Rod puppets – They are flat cut out figures tacked to a stick, with one or more movable parts, and operated from below the stage level by wire rods or slender sticks.
3. Hand puppets – This type of puppet is made to slip over the hand like a glove. The puppets head is operated by the forefinger of the puppeteer, the little finger and thumb being used to animate the puppet hands. 4. Glove-and-finger puppets – They make use of old gloves to which small costumed figure are attached.
5. Marionettes – These puppets are suspended and controlled by a number of strings, plus sometimes a central rod attached to a control bar held from above by the puppeteer. The control bar can be either a horizontal or vertical one. Basic strings for operation are usually attached to the head, back, hands (to control the arms) and just above the knee (to control the legs). These are generally constructed of wood with articulating joints that replicate those of human beings.
Advantages: • They boost active participation among students. • Stirring and attention getting • Fascination of the inanimate objects • Enjoyable and spontaneous learning experiences • Students become more creative.
Limitations: • It is time-consuming. • It is expensive. • It demands extra effort. • It can compete with the teacher.
Principles in Choosing a Puppet Play for Teaching • Do not use puppets for plays that can be done just as well or better by another dramatic means. • Puppets play must be based on action rather than words. • Keep the plays short to ensure success. • Do not omit the possibilities of music and dancing as part of the puppet show. • Adapt the puppet show in all respects to your audience. • Do not hesitate to adapt the puppet play.
5. RESOURCE PERSON • A resource person is someone invited to talk about something. He/she is experienced or knowledgeable with and is capable of sharing what he/she knows. • . In the classroom, there are instances when a teacher realizes that certain topics are better taught when they are discussed with the help of an expert
When inviting and using a resource speaker, the following should be considered: • Engage the expert. • Clarify the purposes of the visit. • The subject is of educational relevance and value to the students in that class. • The speaker (s) will not tend to disrupt the educational program. • The information to be discussed is appropriate to the age and maturity of the students. • Prepare the class. • The teacher is to remain in the classroom throughout the presentation in order to ensure appropriate follow-up.
The following should be remembered in introducing speakers: 1. Thoroughly prepare what you are going to say 2. Follow the TIS formula: T– stands for topic or the exact title of the speaker’s talk I – stands for importance of the topic S – stands for the speaker. It includes the speaker’s outstanding qualifications, particularly those that relate to the topic. 3. Announce the speaker’s name distinctly and clearly. 4. Be enthusiastic about the speaker.
Things to remember when invited as a Resource Speaker: • Restrict your subject to fit the time at your disposal. • Arrange your ideas in sequence. • Enumerate your points as you make them. • Compare the strange with the familiar. • Turn in a fact into picture. • Avoid technical terms. • Use the appropriate media. • Speak with contagious enthusiasm. • Show respect and affection for your audience. • Begin in a friendly way.
When delivering the talk: • Crash thoroughly your shell of self-consciousness. • Don’t try to imitate others – be yourself. • Converse with your audience. • Put your heart into your speaking. • Practice making your voice strong and flexible.
Advantages: • Less preparation on the part of the teacher • Thorough discussion of the topic • It might add enthusiasm to the audience if the speaker is good.
Limitations: • Hassle in searching for the suitable speaker. • It might confuse the audience if the speaker is not good enough. • Less enthusiasm from the audience if the speaker is boring.
References Bollough, Robert V. (1978). Creating Instructional Materials 2nd Edition. Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, A Bell and Howell Company, Columbus, Ohio 43216. Brown, James W.et.al. (1977). AV Instruction: Technology, Media, and Methods. McGraw-Hill, Inc. Corpuz, Brenda et. al (2008). Educational Technology 1. Lorimar Publishing, Inc. 776 Aurora Blvd., cor. Boston Street, Cubao, Quezon City, Metro Manila. Dale, Edgar (1954). Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching (revised). The Dryden Press, Inc., New York.