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Presentation To New Jersey Clean Air Council April 14, 2004. Particulate Matter Issues and Control Measures Associated With Compression Ignition Engines Presented by Joe Suchecki. Engine Manufacturers Association www.enginemanufacturers.org ema@emamail.org.

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presentation to new jersey clean air council april 14 2004

Presentation ToNew Jersey Clean Air CouncilApril 14, 2004

Particulate Matter

Issues and Control Measures

Associated With Compression Ignition Engines

Presented by

Joe Suchecki

Engine Manufacturers Association

www.enginemanufacturers.org

ema@emamail.org

engine manufacturers association
Engine Manufacturers Association
  • Member Trade Association Representing Manufacturers of Internal Combustion Engines
  • Represent Industry on Legislative and Regulatory Matters With Federal, State, Local Government
  • Emphasis on Environmental and Emissions Issues
ema members
Briggs & Stratton

Caterpillar

CNH

Cummins

DaimlerChrysler

Deere & Co

Detroit Diesel

Deutz

Ford

General Motors

Hino Motors

International Truck & Engine

Isuzu Motors America

Kohler

Komatsu

Kubota Engine America

Mitsubishi Engine NA

Mitsubishi Fuso Truck

Onan-Cummins Power

PACCAR

Scania CV

Tecumseh

Volkswagen

Volvo Powertrain

Waukesha Engine, Dresser

Yamaha Motor

Yanmar Company

EMA Members
presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Particulate Matter Health Effects
  • PM Emissions from Diesel Engines
  • New Engine Emissions Standards
  • Existing Engine Control Issues
  • Recommendations To Reduce PM
particulate matter health effects
Particulate Matter Health Effects
  • Questions still remain regarding health effects of PM
  • PM health studies and statistical analyses often provide conflicting results
  • Ambient PM levels, the size of any health effect, mechanisms, and source of any effect are still uncertain
particulate matter health effects6
Particulate Matter Health Effects
  • Some Observations Deserve Attention
    • HEI Report on time series studies indicates that model selection changes results
    • Koop and Tole paper indicates that uncertainty in model selection overwhelms small association between PM and health effects
    • Estimated risks from PM are lower now than in 1996
    • New studies show smaller risks and higher uncertainty
    • In some respects, epidemiological evidence for PM health effects is actually weakening
  • At a minimum, new study results certainly raise significant scientific questions on PM health effects
particulate matter health effects7
Particulate Matter Health Effects
  • Science has not yet provided a definitive answer on PM health effects
  • Regardless of the health effects question, a PM2.5 NAAQS is in place and New Jersey needs to address attainment
  • Key question today is what has been done and what can be done to reduce PM
pm emissions from diesel engines
PM Emissions From Diesel Engines
  • Compression ignition engines using diesel fuel are today’s power of choice for:
    • Trucks and Buses
    • Construction and Farm Equipment
    • Locomotives
    • Shipping
    • Stationary Power Generation
  • Energy Efficient, Reliable, Durable, Cost Effective
pm emissions from diesel engines9
PM Emissions From Diesel Engines
  • Like other combustion sources compression ignition engines emit PM
  • Concerns often expressed regarding diesel engines
    • Health Effects
    • Significant PM Source
    • Uncontrolled Emissions
    • Smoke and Odor
    • NOx and Air Toxics
diesel engine issues
Diesel Engine Issues
  • Health Effects
    • Based on old technology and fuels and questionable studies/source apportionment
  • PM Levels
    • Emissions significantly reduced and ambient levels from diesel sources already decreasing
  • Uncontrolled Emissions
    • Not True – PM emissions from diesels reduced by 90% since 1980s
  • Smoke, Odor, Other Emissions
    • Significantly Reduced as well
diesel engine pm emissions standards
Diesel Engine PM Emissions Standards
  • New Diesel Onroad Engines

1980s > 1.0 g

1988 0.6 g

1994 0.1 g

2007 0.01 g

  • New Diesel Nonroad Engines

1980s >1.0 g

1996 0.4 g

2003 0.15 g

2011 0.01 g

slide12

On Highway Truck EnginesEPA Diesel Engine Emission Standards

Particulates

NOx

NOx g/hp-hr

Particulatesg/hp-hr

Year

Year

new engine emissions standards
New Engine Emissions Standards
  • PM reductions through Catalyzed Filters and 15 ppm sulfur diesel fuel
  • New engine technologies eliminate PM from diesel engines to near zero levels
  • Complete elimination of soot/carbon PM
  • Control technology also eliminates hydrocarbon emissions
new engine emissions standards15
New Engine Emissions Standards
  • New Emissions Standards require elimination of virtually all PM from new diesel engines
    • 2006 for onroad engines
    • 2011 for nonroad engines
  • All PM issues associated with new diesel engines are solved
  • No need for additional controls of new engines
existing engine control issues
Existing Engine Control Issues
  • Existing onroad and nonroad fleets will continue to operate
  • Existing Emissions Depend on
    • Age of Engine
    • Applicable Emissions Standards When New
    • Maintenance Practices
    • Fuel
  • Options Available
    • Vehicle Replacement
    • Engine Replacement
    • Retrofit
  • Not all existing engines and equipment can be retrofitted to reduce PM
stationary diesel engines applications
Stationary Diesel Engines Applications
  • Diesel engines used to generate electricity in Distributed Generation applications
    • Prime Power
    • Emergency Generators
  • Stationary sources regulated by States through application of state emissions standards and permits
emergency standby power
Emergency Standby Power
  • Diesel engines are best solution to meet performance standards and State’s needs for Emergency Standby Electricity
  • Diesels fill critical role in being able to meet stringent performance and regulatory requirements, and their ability to perform their function should not be compromised
  • Air quality impacts are small because of minimal operating times and improved emissions profiles
key emergency generator issues
Key Emergency Generator Issues
  • Emergency Generators Save Lives and Keep Essential Services Running
  • Environmental Regulations Must Recognize this Vital Role and Not Impair their Ability to Function as Needed
  • Emergency Generators Should Be Allowed to Operate as Distributed Energy Generators IF the Operator Complies with the Emissions Standards Applicable to Non-Emergency Generators
recommendations to reduce pm
Recommendations to Reduce PM
  • New Engines for Mobile Source Applications
    • New Federal Emissions Standards will reduce PM to near zero levels, no other action required
  • Existing Engines for Mobile Source Applications
    • Voluntary Incentived Retrofit Programs
      • Encourage/accelerate fleet turnover
      • Provide incentives for engine retrofit/replacement
      • Identify and establish funding sources
    • Heavy-Duty I&M Programs to Assure Proper Maintenance
recommendations to reduce pm21
Recommendations to Reduce PM
  • New Engines for Stationary Source Applications
    • Emergency Generators – Meet EPA nonroad Tier 2/3 standards, fuels
    • Prime Generators – Establish Feasible PM standards
  • Existing Engines for Stationary Source Applications
    • Emergency Engines – Incentives for Replacement, fuels
    • Prime Generators - Establish Feasible PM Standards
presentation to new jersey clean air council april 14 200422

Presentation ToNew Jersey Clean Air CouncilApril 14, 2004

Particulate Matter

Issues and Control Measures

Associated With Compression Ignition Engines

Presented by

Joe Suchecki

Engine Manufacturers Association

www.enginemanufacturers.org

ema@emamail.org