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  1. End of stamping Get your stamp in 5 minutes.

  2. expanded answermnemonic • tea: • make • snakes • Tropical • thermosphere: • mesosphere • Stratosphere • Troposphere exo iono exosphere ionosphere

  3. End of stamping Get your stamp in 5 minutes.

  4. 3 methods of popping expanded answer • conduction • convection • radiation

  5. Atmosphere and the Big Four Systems of Our Earth See your Atmosphere Guided Notes.

  6. Composition of Earth • Earth has 4 interactive systems:

  7. The Atmosphere– layer of gas that surrounds Earth, more commonly known as air.

  8. Composition of Earth’s Atmosphere atmosphere • Mostly Nitrogenand Oxygen • Has layers • Protects us from meteors and comets, x-rays, gamma rays, ultra violet light • Water vapor is responsible for clouds and precipitation • Composition is almost constant EXCEPT for water (from 0 to 5% --not shown in the pie chart above)

  9. Atmosphere. How do you know it’s there? • Is this air that surrounds us considered to be matter? Does it weigh anything? How do you know? • Think about it and decide on answers. • Talk in groups if assigned by teacher. • Be ready to tell the class what you decided and why. • Don’t start cooperative group work unless you know and follow group rules. • Any questions?

  10. Weight of the atmosphere • Gases are in the atmosphere. • Their elements are listed in the periodic table: Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen • Air is matter! • Sound can travel through it. • It has volume and mass.

  11. Even though you can’t see them, atoms make up gases. • Are some atoms bigger than others? • Are their atomic weights all the same?

  12. Helium vs. Carbon Dioxide Do you think of helium as light and floating or heavy and falling? Do you think about Carbon Dioxide as light and floating or heavy and falling? Think about the gas released from dry ice--does it go up or down? http://jp.youtube.com/watch?v=F239cINIADs

  13. Troposphere, Water, and Clouds • Among other gases, there is water vapor in the troposphere. The amount varies. • You cannot see water vapor. • Clouds form when air rises, cools to its dew point, and becomes saturated with water vapor. • Water changes state. Bits of liquid and solid water can remain suspended in air.

  14. Precipitation-falling water in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail

  15. Water Cycle Demonstration(involves redistribution of water)

  16. So water changes state. Why does that matter so much? Changing state: • Redistributes fresh water all over Earth http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/watercycle/ • Causes much wind! • Models of these phenomena will be demonstrated now, if possible. Try to figure out how they represent Earth.

  17. Water Vapor Demonstration(involves huge change in volume)

  18. Composition of Earth’s atmosphere Exosphere The Atmosphere • layers • Exosphere • Thermosphere • Ionosphere • Mesosphere • Stratosphere • Troposphere • What is below the troposphere? geosphere (solid Earth)

  19. Layers of the Atmosphere (Exosphere)-- Thermosphere-- Mesosphere-- Stratosphere-- Troposphere Turn over to page 2 of your Guided Notes handout, half way down the page. Fill in the graphic organizer as you learn.

  20. Where does the troposphere fit in? Exosphere • Earth’s 4 main systems: • The Atmosphere • Troposphere • Contains most clouds and weather. • Temperature cools as you go higher; ~50% of sun’s energy enters, 50% is reflected back. • Most of the troposphere’s heat has bounced back from Earth (mostly from convection) • Stratosphere • Mesosphere • Thermosphere • The Hydrosphere • The Biosphere • The Geosphere

  21. Atmosphere (Exosphere) Thermosphere-- Mesosphere-- Stratosphere-- Troposphere-- Write it here. • Contains most clouds and weather. • Temperature cools as you go higher; • 50% of sun’s energy passes through, 50% is reflected back. • Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth (convection)

  22. Troposphere and Weather(Turn back to p. 1) • Weather—the atmosphere’s condition in terms of temperature,cloud cover, wind speed and direction, humidity, and air pressure. • What are different types of weather? (You tell me.) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  23. Earth’s Weatherin the Troposphere • Temperature—a measure of how fastair molecules are moving. • When molecules are moving rapidly, temperature is high. • Celsius and Fahrenheit thermometers measure air temperature.

  24. Earth’s Weatherin the Troposphere • What is the temperature like today? • Hot/ Cold ______________________ • Degrees Fahrenheit_______________ • Degrees Celsius _________________ • http://www.weather.com/weather/hourbyhour/graph/Winston-Salem+NC+27104:4:US • Energy is transferred between fast-moving molecules and slower-moving molecules.

  25. Earth’s Weather in the Troposphere Energy is transferred by: • Conduction—transfer of energy when molecules collide, e.g. from hot pavement to your bare feet. • Give an example of something heating up due to conduction. • Convection, which occurs from moving fluids, as when warm air rises and cool air sinks, e.g. • Give an example of something heating up due to convection. • Radiation—transfer of energy by waves or rays, e.g. sun warming your face. • Includes light, microwaves, and heat. • Heat is infrared radiation.

  26. Conduction, convection, radiation are all occurring here. Can you identify them?

  27. 3 methods of popping • conduction • convection • radiation

  28. Earth’s Weatherin the Troposphere • Air pressure— the weight of air. Since air is a fluid, the weight pushes in all directions, not just down. • Air pressure varies from one place to another • Warmer air is less dense and exerts less pressure. • Cooler air is more dense and exerts more pressure. • Works just like other fluids, such as water.

  29. Air Pressure Demonstration or Discussion —Write about what you learned.

  30. Humidity— the amount of watervapor in the air • Temperature affects humidity

  31. Dewpoint—temperature at which the air is holding as much water vapor as it can • (What happens when temperature drops?) • Relative humidity— a measure of the amount of water vapor present compared to the amount that could be held at a specific temperature.

  32. Atmosphere (Exosphere) Thermosphere-- Mesosphere-- Stratosphere-- Troposphere THAT WAS ALL ABOUT THE TROPOSPHERE! • Let’s cover the other layers briefly. • Fill in information about each layer as we come to it.

  33. Altitude and temperatureWhat does this mean?

  34. Composition of Earth’s atmosphere • Earth Has 4 main systems that interact: • The Atmosphere • Troposphere • Stratosphere • 10 km to 50 km • contains ozone (the ozone layer) that absorbs much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. • Gets warmer as you go up! • Mesosphere • Thermosphere • The Hydrosphere • The Biosphere • The Geosphere

  35. Atmosphere (Exosphere) Thermosphere-- Mesosphere- Stratosphere--10 km to 50 km Contains ozone, which absorbs much of Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Gets warmer as you go up. • Troposphere--Contains most clouds and weather. Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth. Temperature cools about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude.

  36. Composition of Earth’s atmosphere • Earth Has 4 main systems that interact: • The Atmosphere • Troposphere • Stratosphere • Mesosphere • 50-85 km • The coldest part of the atmosphere (to -90°C) • Gets colder as you go up. • Thermosphere • The Hydrosphere • The Biosphere • The Geosphere

  37. Atmosphere (Exosphere) Thermosphere-- Mesosphere- 50-85 km, The coldest part of the atmosphere (to -90°C) Gets colder as altitude gets higher. Stratosphere--10 km to 50 km , contains ozone that absorbs much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Gets warmer as you go up. • Troposphere--Contains most clouds and weather. Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth Temperature cools about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude.

  38. Composition of Earth’s atmosphere • Earth has 4 main interactive systems: 1. The Atmosphere • Troposphere • Stratosphere • Mesosphere • Thermosphere • 80-500 km • Temperatures increase up to 1,700°C • Filters out x-rays and gamma rays from the sun. • This is an image of the space shuttle as it is orbiting around the Earth. The space shuttle orbits in the thermosphere of the Earth. 2. The Hydrosphere 3. The Biosphere 4. The Geosphere

  39. Atmosphere (Exosphere) Thermosphere-- 80-500 km, Temperatures increase up to 1,700°C. Filters out x-rays and gamma rays from the sun. The space shuttle orbits in the thermosphere. Mesosphere--The temperature drops when you go higher, like it does in the troposphere. Coldest part of the atmosphere Stratosphere--from 10 km to 50 km above Earth’s surface, this layer contains ozone that absorbs much of Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. • Troposphere--Contains most clouds and weather., Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth, Temperature cools about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude.

  40. Thermosphere: Ionosphere • Ionosphere is the inner part of the thermosphere • a layer of electrically charged particles • This layer allows radio waves to travel across the country to another city. • www.blo ust.com/henley • http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/atmosphere/index.html

  41. Thermosphere: Exosphere • The outer part of the thermosphere • The last layer of the atmosphere • Difficult to tell where it stops and space begins • Very few molecules in this layer of the atmosphere • Temperature gets higher with higher altitude (e.g. 17,000 degrees C) • But if we could visit, it would not feel hot. Why is that?

  42. Atmosphere (Exosphere)-The outer part of the thermosphere. Difficult to tell where it stops and space begins, Very few atoms in this layer of the atmosphere. Higher altitude~higher temperature. Thermosphere-- The air is really thin that high up. The temperature changes with the solar activity. If the sun is active, temperatures in the thermosphere can get up to 1,500°C or higher! High temperature, but would not feel hot if we could visit. (Why?) Mesosphere--The temperature drops when you go higher, like it does in the troposphere. Coldest part of the atmosphere Stratosphere--from 10 km to 50 km above Earth’s surface, this layer contains ozone that absorbs much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. • Troposphere--Contains most clouds and weather., Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth, Temperature cools about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude. • Ionosphere: the inner part of the thermosphere • a layer of electrically charged particles within the mesosphere and thermosphere • This layer allows radio waves to travel.

  43. Atmosphere (Exosphere)-The outer part of the thermosphere. Difficult to tell where it stops and space begins, Very few atoms in this layer of the atmosphere. Higher altitude~higher temperature. Thermosphere– Thin air. Temperature rises as you go higher. Usually divided into ionosphere and exosphere. Mesosphere--The temperature drops when you go higher, like it does in the troposphere. Coldest part of the atmosphere. Stratosphere—contains the ozone that absorbs much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Some jet planes fly here. • Troposphere--Contains most clouds and weather. Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth, which is why temperature cools as you go higher. We live here. • Ionosphere: the inner part of the thermosphere • a layer of electrically charged particles within the mesosphere and thermosphere • This layer allows radio waves to travel.

  44. Go back to the top of p. 1:one reason the magnetosphere is important • The Sun spits out hazardous stuff that we call solar wind—charged particles and ions, globs of plasma, and other hazardous-to-life things. • The magnetic field around Earth deflects the solar winds around the Earth. • (In other words, the magnetosphere protects us from solar winds.)

  45. Key Terms—Identify each. In this case, identify means write something important. • dew point • saturate • element • conduction • convection • radiation • vapor • gas • liquid • solid • weight • pressure • fluid

  46. Any questions?