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Internationalizing W3C's Speech Synthesis Markup Language, Workshop II, Heraklion, Crete, May 2006. Considerations on using PLS for Slovenian Pronunciation Lexicon Construction Jerneja Ž ganec Gros Alpineon d.o.o. , Ljubljana, Slovenia [email protected]

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slide1
Internationalizing W3C's Speech Synthesis Markup Language, Workshop II, Heraklion, Crete, May 2006
  • Considerations on using PLS for Slovenian Pronunciation Lexicon Construction
  • Jerneja Žganec Gros
  • Alpineond.o.o., Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • [email protected]
slide2
Presentation outline
  • Introduction
  • SI-PRONlexicon:
    • word list
    • lexicon format
    • phonetic transcription
    • morpho-syntactic descriptions
  • Proposed extensions to PLS, SSML
  • Conclusions
slide3
Introduction
  • Speech technology applications:
    • automatic speech recognition (ASR)
    • text-to-speech synthesis (TTS)
    • require consistent specification of pronunciation
    • Slovenian: lexical stress position not fixed -> pron lex crucial
  • Pronunciation lexicons:
    • general
    • application-specific
      • word/phrase pronunciations
      • application-specific proper nouns: personal&location names
slide4
Slovenian pron lex
  • General:
    • S5 (Gros et al., 1996)
    • Onomastica (Derlić and Kačič, 1997)
    • SImlex/SIflex (Verdonik et al, 2002)
    • SI-LC-STAR (Verdonik and Rojc, 2004)
    • AlpSynth (Gros et al., 2002)
    • SI-BN (Žibert, 2005, Žgank; 2005)
  • Application-specific:
    • Gopolis, SpeechDAT, etc
slide5
Word-list
  • SI-PRON wordlist:

(a) 93,154 lemmas from SSKJ

(b) over 1,000,000 word form derived from (a) – morphol. deriv.

(c) additional word list:

      • corpus-based search
      • 20,000 most freq inflected word forms not covered by SSKJ lemmas

(d) collocations, multi-word expressions

SSKJ: Slovar slovenskega knjižnega jezika

slide6
Phonetic transcriptions
  • SSKJ lemmas:
    • automatic derivation, based on dynamic/tonemic accent information
    • manual corrections for about 2.500 lemmas (words of foreign origin)
  • Word forms derived from SSKJ:
    • automatic: SSKJ lemma pronunciation look-up, inflectional paradigms
  • Additional corpus-based word list:
    • automatic lexical stress assignment
    • AlpSynth grapheme-to-phoneme rule set
slide7
GTP rules
  • 193 context-dependent grapheme-to-phoneme rules:

Left

Grapheme

Right

Phonetic

Example

Rule explanation

context

string

context

transcr.

$

er

_

[@r]

Gaber

@ occurs before each -r not

followed by a vowel

(T

opori

sic

91, p.49)

=

m

f

[F]

Simfonija

in front of and is

pronounced as a labiodental

(Pravopis90, p. 145)

slide8
Transcription accuracy experiment
  • reference: hand-crafted pron lex, 30K lexemes
  • automatic lexical stress assignment: 25% error rate
  • lexical stress & o/e pronunciation known in advance:
    • transcription success rate 99.01 %

(0.6% handcrafting errors)

  • conclusion:
    • for semi-automatic derivation of Slovenian phonetic

transcriptions with a 0.03% error rate only lexical

stress positions&e/o need to be manually validated

slide9
SI-PRON format
  • LC-STAR lexicon specs – STTS (Shamas & v Heuvel, 2004)
  • Pronunciation Lexicon Specification (PLS)
    • W3C Voice Browser Activity
    • Pronunciation lexicon markup language
    • Version 1.0, W3C Last Call Working Draft 31 January 2006
      • http://www.w3.org/TR/pronunciation-lexicon/
  • Two main applications:
    • Speech Synthesis (SSML documents)
      • PLS improves SSML on text normalization, GTP
    • Speech Recognition (SRGS grammars)
  • W3C standard! recommendation
slide10
PLS in SSML
  • SSML document references an external pron lexicon:
    • TTS engine loads the PLS documents and applies them to the SSML document
    • applications may specify contextual PLS documents, which are to be used in different points of the interaction (like airports.pls, carriers.pls, …)

Letalo letalske družbe British Airlines, ki prihaja iz

Manchestra, bo imelo 5 minut zamude.

slide11
Phonetic alphabet
  • SI-SAMPA (Zemljak et al., 2002)
    • Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet
    • only ASCII characters, not the IPA extended char set
    • augmented with additional markers for tonemic accents (tonemic acute&tonemic circumflex), lexical stress accents (acute, circumflex&grave)
slide12
PLS
  • The element - container of a lexicon entry:
    • usually only one element
    • severalor elements

-

8"?>

dober

"d/o:

-

[email protected]

--

This is an example of the x

-

samp

a

-

SI

-

reduced string

for the pronunciation of the Slovenian word: "dober",

meaning "good" in English

--

>

slide13
Pronunciation variations
  • multiple pronunciations:
    • several elements
    • preferred pronunciation:
      • indicated by the prefer element
      • usually the 1st pronunciation from the SSKJ
      • for some words, 2 pronunciations are equally preferred EXAMPLE:

- male Slovenian nouns, terminating with "ilec" like

/borilec/, /darovalec/

        • "iUts"/"ilts", "ilts"/"iUts", "ilts", or "iUts"
        • typically account for more fluent"iUts" or overarticulated"ilts"pronunciation
slide14
Extensions…
  • proposed extension:
    • a new optional attribute for the element:
      • pron-styleattribute
      • values: "fluent", "overarticulated"
    • pron-stylealso for other elements:
      • , ,

        ,

      • another optional attribute for the above elements:

emotionfor expressive TTS ?

slide15
Extensions…
  • dialects:
    • user-friendly apps require dialect/sociolect pronunciation variations
    • another optional attribute for the following elements:

, , ,

,

- rfc3066-like identifiers may be used to indicate dialects

slide16
Extensions…
  • source/creator:
    • only the element
    • source of multiple pronunciations:
      • useful info when merging multiple PLS dox
      • some sources/creators may be more reliable than others…

- additional optional attribute pron-sourcefor the element

slide17
Extensions…
  • part-of-speech tags:
    • Slovenian language – complex inflectional paradigm
      • including "dual" – like ancient Greek!
    • morphological, syntactic and semantion descriptors welcome in future revisions of the PLS document
  • proprietary , elements used in SI-PRON
      • MULTEXT-East MSDs (Erjavec, 2004)
slide18
Conclusion
  • SI-PRON pronunciation lexicon for Slovenian
  • proposed extensions to PLS, SSML
    • pron-styleattribute 
    • emotionattribute
    • annotating dialects/sociolects
    • source/creatorattribute 
    • morpho-syntactic, semantic descriptors 
slide19
Project Partners
  • L6-5405 project
    • Research of Slovenian Language in Lexicography and Lexicology based on Digital Language Resources
    • Spoken representation of Slovenian words:
      • http://bos.zrc-sazu.si/sskj.html
  • Alpineon
  • ZRC-SAZU
      • Fran Ramovš Institute of the Slovenian Language
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