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WORKCARE: Social Quality and the Changing Relationship Between Work, care and Welfare in Europe Scotland House , Brussels, Tuesday 16 th of June 2009. Family Policy and Welfare Regimes Anders Ejrnæs & Thomas P. Boje Department of Society and Globalisation Roskilde University, Denmark

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WORKCARE: Social Quality and the Changing Relationship Between Work, care and Welfare in EuropeScotland House , Brussels, Tuesday 16th of June 2009

Family Policy and

Welfare Regimes

Anders Ejrnæs & Thomas P. Boje

Department of Society and Globalisation

Roskilde University, Denmark

ejrnaes@ruc.dk & boje@ruc.dk

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes
Family Policy and Welfare Regimes
  • Develop a classification of family policy regimes for all EU Member States
  • Variables measuring different strategies pursued by European household in balancing work-family responsibilities
  • The relationship between family policies and family praxis
  • Provision of care for small children

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes3
Family Policy and Welfare Regimes

Prevailing welfare typologies are problematic, because

  • The welfare regimes are not coherent
  • Based on North-Western European data
  • Include only state and market as welfare providers
  • Exclude the family and its internal dynamics

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes4
Family Policy and Welfare Regimes

A new approach for analysing Family Policy Regimes needs to include

  • The breadwinner system- the family structure and gender relations
  • Familialisation / defamilialisation – how the provision of care is organisation (inside or outside the family)
  • Social Citizenship rights – the right to receive care and the right to provide care

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes5
Family Policy and Welfare Regimes

Different Work-Family typologies:

  • The breadwinner model (Lewis 1992)
  • Welfare provision and labour market (Gornick, Meyers and Ross 1997)
  • Social citizenship rights – right to care (Knijn & Kremer 1997 and Kremer 2007)
  • Organisation of care in the households (Bettio and Plantenga 2004)
  • Leave arrangement and gender division (Moss & o’Brien 2006 and Wall 2007)

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes6
Family Policy and Welfare Regimes

A growing attention among the EU member States for family-friendly policies due to women’s increasing rate of labour market participation and changing family formations.

This paper deals with three policy areas:

  • Family policy and working time
  • Parental leave schemes –> family home care
  • Child care systems –> womens’s take up of employment

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

central variables in the cluster analysis defining the family policy regimes
Central variables in the cluster analysis – defining the Family Policy Regimes
  • Childcare take up among children aged 0-3 in percentage of the total number of children in this age-group
  • Effective parental leave in weeks.
  • Female part-time employment rate according to the EUROSTAT definition – self-declared part-time
  • Total spending on family policy in percentage of GDP

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes five clusters
Family Policy and Welfare Regimes Five Clusters
  • Cluster 1: Long-Leave Part-time model
  • Cluster 2: Short-leave Part-time Model
  • Cluster 3: Extensive Family Policy Model
  • Cluster 4: Family Care Model
  • Cluster 5: Extended Parental Leave Model

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes cluster 1 long leave part time model
Family Policy and Welfare RegimesCluster 1: Long-leave, Part-time Model

This cluster includes Germany, Austria and Luxembourg. These countries have:

  • Long parental leave, which is relatively well paid.
  • For the majority of mothers on parental leave follow by a longer period outside the labour market caring for the children.
  • High level of Part-time employment when mothers take up gainful employment after caring.
  • It is part-time employment in unstable jobs with few weekly working hours.
  • High level of spending on family policy due to generous paid parental leave for a long period.

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes cluster 2 short leave part time model
Family Policy and Welfare RegimesCluster 2: Short-leave, Part-time Model

This cluster includes the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. In these countries we find:

  • Parental leave is short and badly paid.
  • Modest level of childcare take up for children aged 0-3 and the childcare facilities have often only short opening hours.
  • The childcare take-up is often combined with women working part-time.
  • A large majority of women who work part-time jobs are on short hours.

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes cluster 3 extensive family policy model
Family Policy and Welfare RegimesCluster 3: Extensive Family Policy Model

This cluster includes Denmark, Sweden, France, and Belgium. In these countries we find:

  • Comprehensive rights to parental leave with generous payment during most of the parental leave period
  • High level of childcare take up among children aged 0-3 years
  • High rates of employment for mothers
  • Spending on family policy is high.

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes cluster 4 family care model
Family Policy and Welfare RegimesCluster 4:Family Care Model

This cluster includes all the Southern European countries and two Baltic countries. Here we find:

  • The period of parental leave varies but in all countries the parental leave is badly paid forcing most mothers to rely on a male breadwinner.
  • Provision of childcare institution is low and when they are available it is normally on short opening hours and they are typically expensive.
  • A low proportion of women in gainful employment and consequently few women in part-time jobs.

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes cluster 5 extended parental leave model
Family Policy and Welfare RegimesCluster 5:Extended Parental Leave Model

This cluster includes Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic plus Lithuania and Finland. Characterized by

  • Very long periods of parental leave up to three years per child.
  • Except Finland all countries have low level of take up of childcare and few women on part-time.
  • After parental leave the children is care for primarily through family arrangements or privately organised childcare.

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes main provider for the youngest child
Family Policy and Welfare RegimesMain provider for the youngest child?

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes household practice in the different family policy models i
Family Policy and Welfare RegimesHousehold practice in the different Family Policy Models I

Type of family policy model affects mothers care praxis and the strategies pursued by the households in reconciling paid work, unpaid work and caring obligation:

  • Long-leave, Part-time Model mothers stay at home on long parental leave - up to three years per child - and if they return into employment it is typically contingent part-time basis on short hours and to extremely low wages
  • Short-leave, Part-time Model period of leave is restricted and the lack of affordable child care facilities often forces mothers to take up part time jobs on short hours or leaving the labour market completely.

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes household practice in the different family policy models ii
Family Policy and Welfare RegimesHousehold practice in the different Family Policy Models II
  • Extensive Family Policy Model mothers regain employment after 6 months-one year parental leave and rely on public institutions for child care
  • Family care model we find apolarisation between mothers who return to the labour market after a short leave relying on help from grandparents and mothers who are not participating in the labour market at all.
  • Extended leave model mothers stay at home on long parental leave, but typically they take up full-time employment when the children are 3 years old. Children are cared for by grandparents

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes policy and household strategies
Family Policy and Welfare RegimesPolicy and Household Strategies

In the paper we have made a classification of the EU Member States based on:

  • the ambitions put forward by the MemberState in pursuing a family-friendly policy towards the work-life balance.
  • the household strategies followed in reconciling obligations in the work life and family life

Most EU-initiated proposals promoting equal opportunities between men and women focus on access to work and in removing the barriers for women into gainful employment – and not equality in family relations and household praxis.

‘Non of the EU Member States has put women on equal terms with men because the family-friendly policies have addressed part of the system rather than the whole.

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje

family policy and welfare regimes policy recommondations
Family Policy and Welfare Regimes Policy Recommondations

To give parents more choices in combining work and care all EU Member States have to:

  • Introduce parental leave periods for both mothers and fathers,
  • Invest in more public and affordable childcare facilities on full-time,
  • Increase the possibility for taking part-time leave giving parents more option in combining work and caring responsibilities
  • Have a protected right to return to their previous job after end leave period.

WORKCARE - Ejrnæs & Boje