Thread application. Contents. 1. Thread usage Stitches Seams Quality issues Garment Properties. Thread application. Apparel – Woven garments - Knitted garments 2. Leather – Footwear - Garments
Contents • 1. Thread usage • Stitches • Seams • Quality issues • Garment Properties
Thread application • Apparel • – Woven garments • - Knitted garments • 2. Leather • – Footwear • - Garments • - Accessories as belts, wallets, bags etc • 3. Automotives
Thread application • Woven fabrics: • With warp and weft yarns interlaced. • Various ranges in the weave type. • Common weaves • - Plain, Twill, Satin, Corduroy, Dobby etc. • Usage from light weight to heavy weight • Weight is expressed in terms of GSM or ounce
Thread application • Knitted fabrics: • With wales and coarses - interlooped. • Various ranges in the knit type. • Common knits are, • - Jercy,Rib, Interlock, etc. • Usage from light weight to heavy weight. • Weight is expressed in terms of GSM • Stretchy in nature due to the looped construction
Thread application Functional properties of a garment depends on, 1. Fabric type 2. Seam type 3. Stitch type 4. Machine / needle type 5. Thread type 6. Wash Fabric properties are significant for seams & stitches !
Product introduction Fabric properties: 1. Strength 2. Cover factor 3. Finish 4. Shrinkage 5. Yarn slippage strength 6. Elasticity 7. Elongation 8. Texture 9. Drapability Thread's contribution to seam appearance is related to fabric properties as well !
Stitches A stitch is… …a loop structure of threads. Stitching is… … a series of stitches. Sewing… …process of making stitching or seams.
Stitch Types Lockstitch Chainstitch Oscillating shuttle Rotary hook * Domestic * Industrial Rotary looper Oscillating looper * Button Stitching * 2T- chain Overlock Coverseam
Stitches Classified by US Federal Standards Based on common kinematic principle of stitch construction. 1. Class 100 - Single thread chain stitch 2. Class 200 - Hand stitch - normally not sewing machine 3. Class 300 - Lock stitch - Hook & bobbin 4. Class 400 - Multi thread chain stitch - Looper 5. Class 500 - Overedge and safety stitch 6. Class 600 - Cover stitch - Similar to 400, but with top cover
Stitch Type 101 • Single thread chainstitch, has a needle thread, and a blind looper. • Has good extention, but unravels easily. • Used for stitching feed bags, fertiliser bags. • The stitch unravels easily and therefore makes access to the bag contents easier. • Single thread chainstitch buttonsew machines also use this stitch. • There is a problem in that if the machine does not tie the last few stitches, and the thread is pulled, the stitch will unravel and the button will fall off.
Stitch Type 301 N B
Stitch Type 301 • Lockstitch, has a needle thread and a bobbin thread • The needle & under thread cross over in the middle of the fabric • Does not unravel easily, • Poor extention. • Stitch is reversible • Uses least amount of thread • Excellent seam security • Lower productivity • More susceptible to thread breaks • Used in wide range of end uses.
Stitch Type 304 N B ZIG ZAG ONE STEP LOCKSTITCH
Stitch Type 304 • Lockstitch zig zag, has a needle thread and a bobbin thread. • Has same benefits as 301 viz: • security of seam • reversibility • wont unravel easy • Has better extension due to the zig zag configuration. • Used mostly on lingerie , foundation wear and underwear, where a secure seam with good extension is required.
Stitch Type 401 N L
Stitch Type 401 • Two thread chainstitch - one needle thread and one looper thread. • The needle & underthreads cross over on the underside of the fabric • Higher seam strength and seam stretch than a lock stitch • Higher productivity • Seam runback (unraveling) is a big problem • Seam security not as good as lock stitch • Increased bulk under the seam • Used for joining trouser panels, riser seams and felled seams in jeans.
Stitch Type 404 N L ZIG ZAG TWO THREAD CHAINSTITCH
Stitch Type 406 N1 N2 L
Stitch Type 406 • Cover seam stitch, has 2 needle and 1 looper thread. • Excellent extention, easy to unravel. • Used for : • T shirts/knits sleeves and bottom hems. • stitching of belt loops in jeans & trousers. • Gives very good extension, and is mostly used to cover a raw edge in the fabric after the fabric has been hemmed etc.
Stitch Type 407 N1 N2 N3 L
Stitch Type 504 N L1 L2
Stitch Type 504 • 3 thread overlock, has 1 needle thread and 2 looper threads. • Has excellent extention and does not unravel easily. • Used for serging to stop fabric fraying, and for joining 2 or more plies together. • However this is not a tight stitch and seam security could be a problem. • Bulky seams
Stitch Type 512 N1 N2 L1 L2
Stitch Type 512 • Mock safety stitch, has 2 needle and 2 looper threads • Very good extention, will not unravel easy. • Side seams, join panels, attach sleeves, join shoulders etc. on knitted fabrics, tee shirts, polos. • Side seams, join panels, etc. on swimwear and on aerobic wear, cycle pants etc. • Where there is a need for a secure seam that needs very good extension. • 512 is more secure than 504 (3 thread overlock) but less secure than 516 (5 thread safety stitch)
Stitch Type 514 N1 N2 L1 L2
Stitch Type 516 N1 L1 N2 L2 L3
Stitch Type 516 • 5 thread safetystitch, has 2 needle threads and 3 looper threads. A combination stitch • Has two stitch types in one, 504 and 401. Good extention, very strong. If one fails the other can absorb the strain • Used for • joining panels where seam stretch is critical • or joining seams where security of seam is important. Jeans (inside legs) side seams and sleeves on shirts, overalls etc. • High seam elasticity
Stitch Type 602 S N1 N2 L
Stitch Type 602 • Top and Bottom cover seam stitch, has 2 needle, 1 looper and 1 spreader thread. • Used : • as a stitch to cover the joint between binding and the garment (necks of knitts) • as a decorative stitch on night gowns & sweat shirts • for stitching legs of aerobic wear and straps on swimwear. • to stitch/attach binding to knitted night gowns. Sweat shirts etc. • Has excellent extension, when a small stitch is used excellent seam cover is achieved.
Stitch Type 605 S N1 N2 N3 L
Stitch Type 605 • Utilizes 3 needle threads, one looper and one cover thread. • Used in knitwear, lingerie & under garments. • High seam elasticity. • Flat, comfortable seams - ideal for 'next to skin' sewing applications. • Can also be used as a decorative seam • Very high thread consumption.
Stitch Type 607 S N1 N2 N3 N4 L
Needle/ Looper/ Spreader Configuration. Stitch Type Needles Bobbins Loopers Spreaders Lock stitch 301 1 1 1T Chain stitch 101 1 (1) 2T Chain stitch 401 1 1 3T Over lock 504 1 2 4T Mock safety stitch 512 2 2 4T Over lock 514 2 2 5T Safety stitch 516 2 3 3T Cover seam 406 2 1 4T Cover seam 407 3 1 4T Cover seam 602 2 1 1 5T Cover seam 605 3 1 1 6T Cover seam 607 4 1 1
Special Stitch Types 1. Pin tuck - Lock or Chain. 2. Picotin 3. Smocking 4. Blind hem stitch – Lock or Chain 5. Pick / Saddle stitch
Thread consumption Thread consumption could be, 1. Amount of thread present in a given garment. 2. Amount of thread consumed while making one garment 3. Amount of thread required to complete a given order quantity
Thread consumption Affected by, 1. Stitch type 2. Seam type 3. Material thickness 4. No of fabric plies 5. Construction 6. Machine type - UBT 7. Operator efficiency 8. SPI